The anti war movement in the United States Essay

The anti war movement in the United States Essay

Intro In this bit of coursework I am answering 3 questions depending on the United States engagement in the Vietnam War. I will be looking at the way the U. S became significantly involved Vietnam, the problems facing U. S i9000 soldiers as well as the anti war movement in america. Question you Explain for what reason the United States became increasingly mixed up in war in Vietnam. Since the end with the nineteenth century the French got ruled the Asian country of Vietnam. After all their 1940 beat during World War Two by Germany, the Japanese (German allies) took over Vietnam assets. During the warfare an anti Japanese movements, named the Viet Minh emerged. These were led with a communist head named Ho Chi Minh who encouraged the Japanese to guard independence. If the war was over the Viet Minh handled the North part of Vietnam and declared Vietnam impartial. The French returned in the hopes of once again lording it over Vietnam and war out of cash out. Mainly because Ho Chi Minh hadn't proclaimed his desire for a Communist Vietnam, the Viet Minh were sympathised by countries including the U. T. A. However when Communists took over in Cina and began helping the Ho Chihuahua Minh the Americans found the Viet Minh being a cover for the Chinese communists. The US started to support french dramatically, in order to prevent a Viet Minh take over. French then create a authorities in Southern region Vietnam. The war extended until 1954 when by Dien Adecuadamente Phu a force of French paratroopers were defeated. The French dropped around eleven, 000 men and the Viet Minh (with support from the USSR and China) had been victorious. Italy had acquired enough and left Viet Nam. Through grit determination a small group had conquered a major European state. This kind of scared the united states as they thought that all other non-communist countries might see the Viet Minh’s victory and determined that communism is the strategy to any challenges they may have got. At a 1954 peace conference the nation was broken into North and South right up until an political election could be held. The USA’s initial reaction to the French giving was worry; they believed that in the event that Vietnam became a communism country, then simply other countries surrounding Vietnam would too fall to communism. It was known as the “Domino Theory, ” and the reality the Viet Minh had just conquered a major electric power only elevated the USA’s fear that other countries would stick to Vietnam into communism hoping to solve all their problems. If all these countries did fall to communism then the ALL OF US also presumed that their trading industry would be ruined, as they assumed communist countries would not desire to transact with them. The US avoided elections taking place because that they feared the Communists could win. They will helped Ngo Dinh Diem set up the Republic of South Vietnam in 1955 because Ngo was really anti-communist and was prepared to imprison virtually any communists. America hoped that he have the ability to take control of North Vietnam too. The U. S extended to support South Vietnam since they thought they were assisting to prevent the distributed of Communism. They thought that all by sharing with the world these people were against the reds would make additional countries take up their morals. The USA had been gradually getting increasingly involved in Vietnam, pumping more and more money into the anti-communist work in the hope that they may possibly destroy people’s beliefs that communism was obviously a way out. It was also a matter of pride pertaining to the USA for many years these were in a frosty war with USSR a communist nation. The USA had pledged to compliment all countries and people that wanted to keep their freedoms in 1947 when Chief executive Truman made speech, which came to be referred to as Truman regle. With USSR supplying and giving aid to communist countries during Asia this did not include only about Vietnam but showing to the USSR that America would not back off. This was about proving what President Truman had said. America would not let the communists take a country if they could help it. Although America continued to function millions of dollars in to them, the corrupt anti-communist government of Ngo Dinh Diem and the equally corrupt governments that followed him only increased the support of communism in the southern region. This triggered a remarkable increase in the numbers of the communist-led Nationwide Front to get the Freedom of Southern region Vietnam, who were generally called the Viet Cong. Among all of their numbers had been South Vietnamese opponents towards the government and Northern Vietnamese who had the support of Ho Chi Minh. These people knew the jungles and terrain of Vietnam very well and had been prepared for almost any military episodes should they arrive. In 1961 the Viet Cong began a guerrilla conflict to eliminate South Vietnam of the anti-communist government. That they attacked federal government building forces as well as American bases. In response to this america sent armed forces ‘advisers’ to fight the Viet Cong. The Americans knew that they can could not damage the Communists in the North politically as they had way too much support. The Viet Cong bullied peasants in to helping these people, and many Buddhists were angered over the persecution many of them received from the Christian government in South Vietnam. The support for the Viet Cong was elevating day by day. We were holding ridding Vietnam of the government that persecuted so many with their fellow Buddhists. The Americans knew that to have virtually any chance of busting the Communists and wrecking communism through Vietnam, they must use all their military electricity. The USA thought that this would surely not fail, specifically after their very own defeat more than major power such as The japanese and Australia. This was an enormous turning point since this resulted in military actions was now being performed officially. Among 1962 and 1964 the USA doubled how much troops in Vietnam, nevertheless President Kennedy said he'd not “blunder into battle, unclear of aims or how to get away again. ” But whether or not they realised it or certainly not the USA were becoming increasingly active in the conflict, they will rapidly elevated the amount of soldiers in Vietnam because they will realised that gaining a victory more than this little nation will be a lot harder than they first believed, thanks to the Viet Cong’s ingenious guerrilla tactics. The USA had been dragged in to this warfare because of their stubbornness to let the reds get one over on them. Another turning point came in 1963 the moment President Kennedy was assassinated, this directed shockwaves around the world but even more crucially to America’s participation in the war, it designed he would be replaced with a heir, Lyndon Meeks. President Manley was a lot more committed to getting into the USA into a full-scale warfare. Soon after his term commenced North Vietnamese ships opened fire in US boats in the Gulf of mexico of Tonkin. The US our elected representatives was mad and in response passed the Tonkin Gulf Resolution. This kind of gave Director Johnson power to ‘take every necessary measures to prevent even more aggression’. To put it simply it intended he can take the USA in an all out war with Vietnam. And he did. On 8th March 65, 3500 marine corps, combat troops (not army advisers) boarded ashore for Da Nang. This was a tremendous change in it meant the USA was today fully for war with Vietnam and admitted this. The military ‘advisers’ they had so far dispatched had performed little to quell the support intended for communism inside the North and the South of Vietnam. The united states was anticipating this being an easy warfare thanks to their vast array of technology and particularly trained military. By 65 the Viet Cong had around 168, 000 troops at their disposal. Their particular weapons were supplied from communist China and the USSR. As I have previously mentioned the Vietnam War was also about sending a message towards the USSR that America will not back down regardless of awkward their particular position would be among the world and in many cases their own people. Ho Chihuahua Minh (leader of the Japanese communist effort) soon noticed that his Viet Cong were zero match to get the To the south Vietnamese and the Americans in open rivalry. At La Dreng Valley in 1965 USA forces slain 2000 Viet Cong and lost just 300. This kind of allowed the American to share the world that their self confidence was not misplaced. But Ho Chi Minh was not to become out carried out and used guerrilla methods on the US army. Partida soldiers could not easily be distinguished via normal people and they employed simple techniques; retreat when the USA attacks, pursue when they retreat, raid when they are slept in tents and assault when they tyre. These ‘cowardly’ tactics might help give the Viet Cong an edge inside the war. Their particular aim was wear down on the morale of enemy troops and it worked. With all the Viet Cong bouncing back again the US government was left in need of more soldiers. The soldiers already in Vietnam acquired low honnete; something the US government believed probably would not help them resistant to the Viet Cong. Therefore they had to increase the amount of troops based in Vietnam. They will used appel to gain troops and decreased the anticipations needed of your soldier to achieve entry for the army. This kind of meant the USA was using soldiers untrained in the battle effort. Some of them died soon after being posted in Vietnam, which meant that more troop were once more needed. This kind of circle ongoing until the end of the USA’s involvement. One more the USA started to be more strongly involved in the warfare was that these people were losing even more men every day. Although the US death cost paled when compared with that of the Viet Cong’s, they were nonetheless losing a lot of guys – males they required to carry out their very own operations and attacks. And so the USA were required to increase violence and participation to lower the number of men dieing in Vietnam. Part of this kind of increased violence included Operation Rolling Oklahoma city. Launched for the 7th Feb . 1967 it involved comprehensive bombing raids on armed service and commercial targets in North Vietnam. This surroundings offensive would last till 1972, as well as list of targets eventually included towns in North and South Vietnam. One of its key targets was your Ho Chihuahua Minh path, which offered the Viet Cong with supplies from your North. The united states constantly bombed this area however it was to not any avail. Thousands of communist staff worked constantly to keep it available ensuring the Viet Cong were very well supplied. The united states dropped more bombs in North Vietnam during this period than was lowered in Germany during the Ww2. This method worked – to some extent. The bombing disrupted the aforementioned supply paths, it empowered the USA to keep attacking the Vietcong actually after they began to withdraw in 1969, and from 70 to 72 bombings upon Hanoi plus the port of Haiphong required North Thai leaders to begin negotiating. Yet this would little in addition to slow the communists straight down. Thanks to the dedicated communist employees supply paths were preserved and the Viet Cong had been still able to launch main attacks for the South. The USA was struggling in costs as well as in troops. In 1967 an American publication calculated that for every Viet Cong jet fighter the US military services killed it might cost them $400, 500. This was a large amount and was one of the reasons the protesting increased in America during this time period. This was one more the USA stepped up participation in Vietnam. They had started out this campaign with confidence, but after a while American began to wonder if we were holding doing worthwhile. So the ALL OF US government and army improved involvement to prove to its very own people that they were doing the right thing. Through the Vietnam War the USA applied many techniques to eliminate the Thai. They elevated their involvement almost step-by-step. One of the main immediate reasons the USA increased engagement was because they could not defeat the communists noteworthy. In recent memory space the Thai had been dominated over by the French as well as the Japanese and wanted to always be independent of course, if communism was your way their particular religious values would be highly regarded then they were all because of it. The USA was also, at the time, in the middle of a chilly war with Russia. A win over communist North Vietnam would increase their confidence as well as the ethical of Americans. Likewise in 1947 President Truman made a speech that came to be understand as the Truman Doctrine. He assured to help anyone who desired to maintain their freedoms. The USA sensed they had to honour this kind of right from the start. The USA also thought that if Vietnam chop down to the reds then various other countries surrounding it would as well. Known as the Domino Theory this kind of a long term reason for the united states entering the war, because they did not wish to let communism spread beyond it currently had. Additionally, they felt their trade market would be severely damaged in the event that they did absolutely nothing. They desired to send a message to other countries that even though little Vietnam experienced just conquered a major electrical power (France) the reds was not the answer to all of their problems and the USA may not tolerate that. Also since the war continued the USA’s death toll improved. This meant that the USA had to increase engagement by sending in less educated troops and putting into effect offensives such as Rolling Thunder. Additionally, the fact that the USA to start with underestimated the Viet Cong meant that they had to keep raising the amount of troops, money and firepower we were holding putting into war thus they may destroy the communists. The united states was also fighting against it’s individual people – the protestors. The US government needed to increase participation so they will could get a result and show their very own people that what they were undertaking was not fruitless. The People in america knew that so many people had great hope in communism. They believed that by destroying this in Vietnam, they would mail a message out throughout the world that communism really does and will never work, yet ultimately by simply underestimating the Viet Cong, by not really respecting the native people and by certainly not adapting to the conditions they entered a battle they will never win. Question two Study Source A. Do you agree with this kind of interpretation from the problem encountered by Us Soldiers in Vietnam? Use the source and knowledge from the studies to explain your response. Source A states the fact that United States soldiers were too inexperienced to become fighting against the Viet Cong guerrilla military who were struggling on their own argument, which they realized extremely well. “An increasing number of recruits have scored so low on the intelligence tests that they would never have been completely let into the normal peacetime army. ” The source says that an increasing number of military were being hired despite not being up to the typical U. T army requirements, but it would not give us a particular number or maybe a percentage of troops. And so the percentage of soldiers not smart enough may only have got risen simply by 1% or possibly a fraction of this. However coming from 1962 to 1969 how much United States military rose via well below 100, 500 to more than 500, 1000. Therefore it is probably that since the death toll went up and more troops returned residence after their one year stays the U. S government lowered it’s standards about what makes a Usa soldier. And so obviously these types of ‘dumb’ troops would have more trouble establishing to the fresh environment, and becoming problems to other soldiers. “The tour of duty in Vietnam was one year. Soldiers were probably to pass away in the 1st month. The best majority of deaths took place inside the first six months. Just as a soldier started gaining encounter he was delivered home. ” Due to the paralyzing desparation of the U. S soldires search for soldiers many troops were sent over to Vietnam untrained and unprepared. Obviously this produce life for these people difficult because they are in an unfamiliar country struggling with in conditions of which they may have never viewed before in their lives. Incongruously, as the original source states, after a while in the same way the soldier (those that survived anyway) gained encounter in the new world terrains his stay in Vietnam was above. “A first year army was constantly throwing inexperienced men against experienced guerrillas on the home ground. ” The source was created in 1992, a full 19 years following the USA’s part in the turmoil had ended, so all of us cannot claim it is a major source of information. Also simply by 1992 it was generally accepted that the USA had dropped the Vietnam War. This was a huge surprise. Small Northern Vietnam having its guerrilla troops and peasants had conquered arguably the world’s best major power. Something certainly not admitted in January 1973 when (at the time) current Leader Nixon believed the peacefulness agreement between both sides because ‘peace with honour’ only for South Vietnam to fall to the reds by 1975. What this means is that by simply 1992 right now there would have recently been longer to scrutinize the methods used by the US government, which could have discovered more faults and mistakes. This might have motivated the author in to writing anything a lot harsher on the U. S, than he would did if To the south Vietnam got never gone down to the reds. Question a few Is there satisfactory evidence in sources A to Farreneheit to explain so why there was a great anti-war motion in the United States throughout the late 1960’s and early on 1970’s? Since the fatality toll improved and more guys came home without limbs there was a growing amount of protestors to the war. Evidence provided in source E is not anti-American or anti-war it is simply proclaiming that the press is the main cause of the anti war activity in the USA. This states how the ghastly pictures presented on tv screens throughout the US are in charge of for the protest groups and marche. “The battle with television displays has made American far more anti militarist and anti war than anything else. ” (Source E) Usual everyday people in the us were browsing hundreds of images showing their particular people (and Vietnamese people) dieing and in pain and this naturally made these people sick. “Blood looks incredibly red on the colour tv set screen. ” (Source E) The source says that more and more Americans are beginning to hate the conflict daily. This is because they are observing in their personal living rooms a similar horrors the soldiers will definitely find. For the first time in history anyone coming from grandmothers to toddlers were able to view people dieing and screaming in pain. Normally most people can be horrified with these pictures, especially those who were not about during WWII -young people in their twenties and teenagers. Young people were at the epicentre of the protesting, and the reality television had become an extremely well-known medium between young people by the late sixties, only resulted in these picture were being noticed by a very large percentage of young people, who have developed anti war statements, which then might have been passed onto other members of their home. “The full brutality with the combat will probably be there in close-up in addition to colour. ” (Source E) This resource is very trusted as it was made at the time of the big event, the speaker (Robin Day) is fairly neutral and therefore neutral and that only states why there exists an anti-war movement in the us not who have or what is to blame. Their only is actually that it does not mention any facts of figures; that only tells us of this person’s opinion with no backing it up factually. “The war on television displays has made People in america far more anti militarist and anti conflict than anything else. ” (Source E) Following on via Source Elizabeth is resource B – a picture of two children screaming and running down the street. They been patients of napalm, a ghastly weapon that inflicts can burn on the victim used by the American to destroy Viet Cong soldiers. Americans weren't just observing images of their own people, but of children and old folk too. The truth that one kid is completely bare and the additional screaming in terror manufactured people realise that the U. S is subjecting blameless people to these types of horrors, not only the communists. Of course we know that the Us citizens never bitten innocents deliberately, but a family seeing a picture like this within their newspaper or perhaps on the tv would be terrified that various other children, much like their own youngsters are being exposed to death and pain. This would make any kind of mother weep out in surprise and the natural way. The People in america ere informing people that the communists had been evil and really should be stopped, yet inside the eyes of many Americans living at home it absolutely was the U. S losing crops and killing innocent children, and naturally this only increased anti warfare feelings. Seeing as source M is a photo it does not present us with an opinion, rather it allows us to draw our own opinion via it. However it is just a single photograph, detailing one event. We are not told if this was accident or deliberately. The photo leads audiences into considering the USA performed this intentionally but this did not include the case, the USA army had been aiming to ruin Viet Cong but since they were perfectly hidden they generally injured ignorant and peasants, this was frequently carelessly nonetheless it was under no circumstances the less a mistake. Yet the American everyone was not the sole ones growing hatred towards U. H army. A large number of Vietnamese (Southern as well as Northern) began to recognize that they would do not have seen the atrocities caused by mortars, bombs and napalm if the U. S hadn’t involved by itself in the first place. “One does not defoliate (destroy vegetation in) a rustic and deform its people with chemicals in the event one is seeking to persuade all of them of the foe’s evil characteristics. ” (Source C) Because of these anti ALL OF US feelings (and the fact the Viet Cong often bullied people in aiding them) many more Japanese peasants joined up with the rebellion. This resulted in the People in the usa were facing opposition within their own basics as well as in the jungles in addition to the Southern region. “A mortar shell royaume right in the middle in the patrol. A couple of guys are dead others are shouting in pain. Did one of these (the peasants) lob the mortar? ” (Source A) This likewise meant that the U. S i9000 soldiers themselves were starting to think in the event that there was any kind of point to the conflict. That seemed to them that the peasants themselves wanted communism and they were struggling for no-one. When they returned home to America many of them spread these kinds of views and feelings among the American persons, telling them that the Japanese peasants these people were fighting pertaining to had turned on them due to accidental casualties caused by the American in innocents. “”One does not make use of napalm in villages and hamlets sheltering civilians… in the event one is looking to persuade these individuals of the rightness of one’s cause. ” (Source C) An American reporter wrote this kind of source during the events. This kind of meant that he was in the thicker of the actions and capable to take in all the media surprise and the protesting and evaluate for him self what he thought, and thus this origin should be treated as remarkably reliable data. But it is only the point of view of one journalist airing his views; it is not necessarily the thoughts of a large number of people and for that reason should arrive under a lot of scrutiny. Also the American media was presenting numerous ghastly images and studies at the time, we are not informed if this journalist is working for anti-war, pro battle or a neutral medium. Our company is not informed if the place where he functions is helping one watch or another. Just by comments such as, “One will not blast hamlets to particles with high-explosives from jet planes kilometers in the sky suddenly – if one is looking to woo the people living presently there to the goodness of one’s cause, ” I would claim he is certainly supportive of just one cause above the other. Nevertheless the horrible images on television screens were not the sole reason People in america developed anti-war feelings. The war in Vietnam was eating up at America’s money. The federal government came under weighty fire intended for spending a lot of on the war instead of assisting its own desolate and clingy. There views were that, why should all of us spend a great deal on various other countries during your time on st. kitts is more to get done in our bait? Source M is a drawing from an english magazine eligible Punch and it was published in 1967. It reveals a teach bearing it “The U. S Economy, ” with it’s gas fire staying fed by chopped up wooden carts it is tugging bearing the title “The Superb Society. ” The smoking coming out of the train has got the word “Vietnam” embossed inside it. It reveals how Director Johnson’s perspective to “feed and protection the homeless…provide more education and health care, ” (Source D) was being thrown away to purchase what various thought was obviously a needless war. Obviously because the multimedia continued to present these landscapes many Americans would be angered at the fact that all their taxes were going to a war quite a few did not want instead of feeding and sheltering the homeless. As I have previously mentioned while using television becoming broadcasted right now all over America, mediums like this were powerful in spreading messages and viewpoints within just days. So naturally this could inspire thoughts of anti-war among various American persons. However this kind of source is from an english magazine – a land that had nothing to carry out with the Vietnam War. Britain had great experience inside the consequences of wars and wanted not do with the war in Vietnam (much like in Globe War Two where the Uk government attempted everything it could to avoid battle with Germany including appeasement). Therefore the Uk press will be likely to criticise the way the ALL OF US was investing in a warfare, which they regarded pointless, rather than spending that on the U. S. A’s own people. This means that this kind of source could well be biased resistant to the Americans, while the British press might be trying to encourage the United kingdom people that they are really doing the best thing simply by staying from the war and that the United States are only ruining their particular people simply by its investing in the warfare. The way the United States recruited/conscripted troops also came under fire. “An increasing number of recruits scored so low on the intelligence tests that they can would never have been let in to the normal peacetime army. ” (Source A) This would increase heavy concerns among the American public as to the reasons the government was allowing these types of troops to fight in alien circumstances especially when these people were not smart or well-trained enough to fight. “Soldiers were probably to perish in the initial month. The top majority of fatalities took place in the first six months. ” (Source A) The very fact that the federal government were mailing inexperienced soldiers over to perish within 6 months would invective many Americans. The American media would recognize this, and so these statistics would be spread across America pretty quickly. This resource was written in 1992, nineteen years after the end of America’s involvement in the war acquired ended. What this intended is that it can be biased, because by then it had been generally approved that the U. S had lost the war, that has been a major raise red flags to. A small number of guerrilla competitors had conquered one of the greatest soldires in the world. This kind of meant that ALL OF US tactics were closely looked at in the years following on from the battle. This means that the author would probably become biased against America as well as its tactics, as by then many people believed the had been struggling with a dropping battle as soon as they moved into the jungles and he'd not want to go against these kinds of theories and beliefs. Inside the film Born On The Next Of July we are displayed a man can be eager to sign up for the US armed service to serve in Vietnam. His name can be Ron Kovic and this film is the biography of his life. When serving Ron and other military slaughter a team of innocent peasants, including women and children. Through the heat of battle he accidentally locations one of his fellow troops, killing him. He is basically told to forget about this and move on. During one other battle a number of bullets wound him, pushing him out of the war. Ron later finds he is paralysed from the waist down, taking him in the things he once liked such as baseball and fumbling. Adding to this kind of when he returns home this individual discovers not everyone is encouraging of the battle, his own family seemed to include turned on the us government they once supported. Ron begins to realise that the battle is for nothing and becomes part of the anti-war movement joining in on protests and demonstrations. This kind of source information the developing resentment with the veterans for the government with the country they will fought pertaining to. As they returning home paralysed and injured many of the troops decided that they do not need anyone else to pass through what they have hot through. The original source shows the anti-war movement increased to become stronger due to help of experts, of which Ron Kovic turns into a torchbearer intended for. The anti war movements could not end up being ignored since not only achieved it consist of ordinary people but Vietnam veterans too who pass on the word of the conditions as well as the lifestyle that awaits foreseeable future soldiers. This source is actually a detailed bit of primary data. Although the film and the publication were made following Ron’s part in the Vietnam War, these were both made from events that happened whilst Ron was there. On the other hand, it could be said that this supply is a prejudiced piece of details. Ron started out as a guy in love with his country, having been willing to guard his residence, but following his accident he slowly and gradually begins to determine that his efforts have been completely for nothing. The final of the film is filled with anti-war beliefs and there is no doubt that Ron may not have offered us these types of thoughts got it not been for his accident. Because of this this origin, however tragic it may be, is definitely biased. The same thing that happened to Ron would have been happening prior to he attended Vietnam but he chose to ignore the protestors until pertaining to him it had been too late. In a nutshell these resources show several reasons as to the reasons there was a great anti-war movement in the USA. They all have worth with which they could be deemed while reliable and properties that demerit all of them such as prejudiced views or no facts to back viewpoints up. However they contain one similar idea, they do explain why there were an anti war motion in the USA back in the 1960’s and early 1970’s There were many reasons as to why there is an anti-war movement through the Vietnam War. For the first time in history people were in a position to view the full terror of conflict off their living rooms. “Blood looks extremely red around the colour television set screen. ” (Source E) This resulted in many persons, young and old, could view what was happening for themselves and not depend on what they are informed by the federal government. People throughout America can watch Japanese children shouting in pain, they could watch American men brought off planes in body bags and they had to complete was start up the television. Seeing something is a lot more influential than hearing it and many American realized this. Therefore it has not been long until the anti-war movement began. “One wonders if a future democracy which experienced uninhibited television set coverage in every single home will ever be able to battle a warfare, however just. ” (Source E) Many American were also enraged with the fact that their very own government was spending money on the war that could go to their own homeless and dieing. Most of these reasons resulted in for the first time in America’s history people chatted up against their countries actions in conflict and rebelled. Veterans going back from actions were able to inform people what was really similar to Vietnam and spread the phrase that they would not want any more young Americans entering the war. (Source F) Us citizens all over for reports their very own soldiers weren't experienced enough to be facing the Faccion soldiers from the Viet Cong and had been obviously outraged. “An raising number of recruits scored so low on intelligence tests that they would not have been let into the typical peacetime military. ” (Source A) Obviously without the channel of tv set many persons would not have developed anti-war thoughts. What this means is that television is the biggest reason as to why there was an anti-war motion. “Blood looks very red on the coloring television display screen. ” (Source E) This means the if it is up to date with current systems the USA made it’s very own worst foe in terms of divulgacion and the protestors best friend.

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