Leader Characteristics and Foreign Policy Performance Essay
The old saying ‘heroes are made, not born’ identifies the making of leaders and command. The exceptional courage, nobility and power attributes for the main personality of a hero that may be caused by a particular circumstances. Within the scenario of a command referring to a President, the epitome of a hero can be may be seen as a a political will or the strong decisiveness in role-modeling; by altering the sovereign mandate from the people refractive of taking socio-political idolatry at home and abroad. The role-modeling of your President represents impact toward interstate (domestic) and overseas (intrastate) policies. Thus, the epitome of a hero is definitely outlined in the execution of policies through which heroes are manufactured. This daily news will discuss the important role-model of leadership that is bestowed after the requirement of a Director symbolical towards the creation and performance of overseas policies. ALL OF US foreign insurance plan decision showing the rational actor version In the latest electronic log issue posted by the Authorities on Overseas Relations (2008) features the article, ‘The Way forward for American Power: How America Can Survive the Rise with the Rest’, designed from the publication of Fareed Zakaria (2008), discusses Britain’s and America’s distinctions of foreign politics power demonstrates the “political leadership in the empire”. According to the article, there has been tremendous change of political power [shifted from various personal leadership] wherein The uk and America competed. The shifting can be perceived being on the third wave when the “rest of political electrical power shifting” remains to be a window of opportunity to get the US to shape and master the changing global landscape, when the strength and dynamism to keep shaping the earth can get over its political dysfunction and reorient their foreign policy for a universe defined by rise of other capabilities (Zakaria, 2008). From the point of view of Zakaria, the remaining of appearing powers in the “third shift” is the current focus of a foreign policy within the social, personal and financial rationale of the US government, and especially a primary goal under Bush’ leadership. The “rational acting professional model” that may be attributed to Bush’ leadership can be exemplified by the comprehensive enactment of the Intellect Reform and Terrorism Elimination Act (IRTPA) of 2004, in which the countrywide and global call of President Bush for “safe (America) and secured world” is by enacting strategic reforms in the cleverness community plus the streamlining of the US paperwork. To report the coherence of the “calling for secure and guaranteed world” is definitely outlined below Section 7001 of the IRTPA that declares the procedures, such as “(Paragraph: 2) to win the war on terrorism, the United States need to assign to economic and diplomatic functions the same ideal priority that may be assigned to military capabilities, and (Paragraph: 3) the legislative and executive limbs of the Government of the United States need to commit to solid, long-term purchases of all of the tools necessary for the foreign policy states to efficiently accomplish the goals of the United States” (IRTPA, 2005; in ALL OF US Public Rules 108–458, 2004). It is therefore refractive of Zakaria’s (2008) function that the “third shift” of power by emerging government authorities and universe economies is a focal point with the US’ shifting of politics leadership through its decision illustrating the leader’s logical actor style in framing a foreign policy. US foreign policy decision illustrating the hero-in-history style The “messianic complex” has been attributed to the character of leadership of Chief executive Bush in the US war on War. It may have already been recalled that US 9/11 tragedy have got sprouted together with the “hero-villain” role-modeling that refers to the US servicemen as hero that struggled the villainous terrorists cohorts in Saddam Hussein’s tyrannical regime in Iraq. In which case, the US battle with Iraq was attributed to the “messianic redemption” that freed the Iraqi people from the bondage of tyranny and renewed the democratic processes. Several politics experts says that the persona of Bush’ leadership has in some levels being a “romanticist’; the sentimentalism that catalyzes decisiveness and unwavering works. Thus, the hero-in-history style is patterned and interlaced to the good war and gaining dominance. In effect, the hero-in-history version has natural circumstance and dominion vis-a-vis tailored in a foreign policy. As cited from the article of Lynne Olson in the electronic magazine with the Guardian, “George Bush’s preferred role version is once Jesus Christ but Winston Churchill is close behind” (Olson, L., 2007). According to Olson the idolatry is definitely circumstantial inside the rose to power of authorities leaders, where the hero-in-history provides inherent benefit; referring to Bush’ admiration for the works of Churchill in uniting and bringing the sibling nations against Hitler while comparatively what the US would on the war to Iraq. It may be perceived the fact that framing from the socio-economic-political aspects of US foreign policy manifests “heroic adventurism” that exalts the hero-in-history model of American policy, and specifically the so-called “heroic idealism” from the President. US foreign policy decision employing the psychobiographical model Based upon the publication ‘Profiling Personal Leaders: Cross-Cultural Studies of Personality and Behavior’ by Ofer Feldman and Bela O. Valenty, the psychobiographical model deeply links the personality (inner-self) of the leader towards the command style. Which means, personal ideals or beliefs is being utilized in the capacity to govern the state or lead the government in enacting procedures. To cite, the system of psychobiography assume that leaders’ personal histories [and the child years experiences] are essential feature that characterized the persona and leaders’ convictions that influences the mode, proneness and performance in decision making (Kaarbo, J., 2001; in Feldman & Valenty, 2001). An example that could ideal describe the individual (psychobiographical model) influence in the process of decision making is the personal conviction of President Rose bush in his ideals for “safe and anchored world”; to be referred by simply American warfare historians as being a “recycled thought” as motivated by his father, the previous President George H. W. Bush, throughout the US soldiers deployment at the center East inside the 1990’s generally known as Operation Wilderness Storm (The White House, 2008). It may be also were recalled that previous President Rich Nixon’s (1913-1994) “abhorrence” to socialism and communism have led to US aggression in Vietnam that weakened the diplomatic ties with China and tiawan, Soviet Union and the Middle section East, and left the American economic climate into downturn (The White colored House, 2008). It could be viewed that the psychobiographical model in relation to the “influence factor” in the leader in the process of decision making somehow impacts the path, significance and satisfaction of a insurance plan in light from the sovereign can. In which case, the result could be inside the derailment (consistency or inconsistency) or success of a policy that address all the socio-economic-political interstate (domestic) and intrastate (foreign) views. At hindsight, the enactment of the IRTPA of 2004 could keep the idealistic norm of ensuring a “safe and secured world”, where the US foreign policy sticks to to those ideals. Significance of political terms According to Barbara Kellerman (1983) of Farleigh Dickinson University, the Bureaucratic Politics Model or BPM is the identification and systematic installation of key authorities functions where the government’s “hierarchical organization” compose a paperwork. The BPM has been executed in the US battle with Iraq, while exemplified by streamlining or functional position of governmental agencies through multi-lateral functions with the legislative, judiciary, executive branches from the government and its military establishments. In short, BPM is a synergy within a government function pre-disposal to the process of decision making and enactment of your domestic and foreign insurance plan (Kellerman, 1983). Decision prevention is being identified by sociologist as a “common type” of indecision especially in major decision making referring to the serves of the President, policy producers, military market leaders and even the private business chief business owners. The decision prevention is also seen as a “playing secure attitude” to select a situation, condition or point out of specifics wherein important analysis is necessary (Michael, A., 2006). A key component rationality will be described as a requirement of coherence on non-instrumental desires and means-end morals, in which the requirement of coherence can be satisfied either locally or maybe more globally (Smith, M., 2004). As recognized, one that explains the coherence of a key component rationality is definitely the legal parlance of IRTPA 0f 2004 in the conduct of US’ war on terrorism wherein acknowledgement, acceptance and collaboration is being worked with of that ilk governments. Therefore, the legal parlance inside the conduct rationalizes the issues on the flawed results to man rights violations. Based on the journal ‘Substantive and Step-by-step Rationality in Decisions underneath Uncertainty’, the “procedural rationality” is a solution to test the empirical research that is unclear (Choi, T., Fisman, 3rd there�s r., Gale, Deb., & Kariv, S., 2005). This explanation may be once again correlated with the IRTPA’s plan that mandates to change the US brains community by creating and establishing work of the Director for Nationwide Intelligence (ODNI) that shall streamline the operation of US homeland defense system, wherein the level and condition of national and global “uncertainties” are vitally studied and processed in aid of policy guidelines or Executive decisions (referring to President directives). To cite, the “rational decision-making model” identifies the process-analysis of circumstantial or situational factor that is certainly guided by parameters, such as (1) establish the situation and decision being made; (2) identify the key criteria to get the process plus the result; (3) consider all possible alternatives; (4) compute the consequences of those solutions compared to likelihood of fulfilling the criteria and select the best option (Decision-Making-Confidence. Com, 2008). This building may be exemplified in the Presidential directives creating the US 9/11 Commission which includes recommended the legislative technique of enacting the IRTPA of 2004. We might quote the saying of the next US Leader John Adams (1797-1801) that describes the presidential character, “liberty can not be preserved with no general knowledge among the list of people who have the justification to that understanding and the desire to know, nevertheless besides this kind of, they have a correct, an indisputable, unalienable, indefeasible, divine right to that most dreadful and envied kind of knowledge—I mean with the character and conduct with their rulers” (President John Adams, 1735-1826; in Texas University Press, 2004). Interpreting the “Presidential Character” connotes the moral beliefs and virtuosity in the persona of a Leader or a personal candidate. It could be perceived that the moral attributions to “presidential character” as well relate to the socio-religious-cultural parental input of the express, to which the moral principles of social responsibility, accountability and self confidence must be stored to the people. Bottom line The role-modeling of every govt in its household and overseas affairs is characterized by the figure-heading of any President being the pre-dominant figure with the bureaucracy. It could be said that the 2ist century character with the US government in bringing about and reaching out its foreign policies features related or perhaps shifted in the sensibility of personality and political can or decisiveness of the Leader of the Area, especially when creating effective and strong governance correlating the “heroic ideals” and championing of democracies. The power changing, as therewith previously talked about in this newspaper, could be substantive in framing a foreign plan within the growing democracies throughout the world. The hypostatic role with the US government may be viewed as more than logically entangled inside the socio-political-economic conditions of it is allied governments and other countries, which may be going beyond depending on the Presidential performance and effectiveness of the foreign policy. In today’s political contest in America, the American individuals are overly mindful in exalting their directly to suffrage, similarly the people on the planet casts on the predicaments and seeming hysteria to whom America shall bear its international policy exactly where heroes shall be made. Sources Choi, S., Fisman, 3rd there�s r., Gale, G., and Kariv, S., (2005). ‘Substantive and Procedural Rationality in Decisions under Uncertainty’. Departmnet of Economics, New York University. Gathered 01 May well 2008 via http://fic. wharton. upenn. edu/fic/papers/06/0601. pdf. Decision-Making-Confidence. Com (2008). ‘The Logical Decision Making Models’. Retrieved 01 May 2008 from http://www. decision-making-confidence. com/rational-decision-making-models. html. Feldman, O. and Valenty, L. O. (2001). ‘Profiling Politics Leaders: Cross-Cultural Studies of Personality and Behavior’. Questia E-Library. Gathered 01 May well 2008 via http://www. questia. com/read/113103019? title=Profiling%20Political%20Leaders%3a%20%20Cross-Cultural%20Studies%20of%20Personality%20and%20Behavior. Kellerman, W. (1983). ‘Allison Redux: Three More Decision-Making Models’. Polity, Vol. 12-15, No . three or more, pp. 351-367. Palgrave Macmillan Journals. Recovered 01 Might 2008 via http://www. palgrave-journals. com/pal/index. html code. Michael, A. (2006). ‘Manage to Change’. Retrieved 01 May 08 from http://managetochange. typepad. com/main/2006/06/the_change_resi_5. html. Olson, L. (2007). ‘Yes, George Bush does recall a British wartime Perfect Minister’. The Guardian. Recovered 01 Might 2008 by
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