This Research Paper Explores the Intricacies of Technology Essay

This Research Paper Explores the Intricacies of Technology Essay

Throughout the previous hundred years and well into the 20 first hundred years (dubbed the “Knowledge Era”), technology has developed to the point where it is now synonymous to numerous terminologies. Technology can be termed as Objects similar to tools, devices, instruments, weaponry; as Knowledge similar to scientific know-how and innovation; while Activities a lot like skills, strategies, procedures; as a Process which begins using a need and ends using a solution and lastly as a Socio-technical System which will occurs throughout the manufacture and use of things involving people and other things in combination. entrepreneurship. Technology is actually a word with origins inside the Greek expression technologia (?????????? ), techno (????? ) “craft” and logia (????? ) “saying. ” It is a broad term dealing with the use and familiarity with humanity’s equipment and designs. Categorically speaking technology is the process with which humans change nature as well as the environment in order to meet their needs and wants. A lot of people, however , consider technology in terms of its artifacts: computers and software, airplane, pesticides, water-treatment plants, birth-control pills, and microwave stoves, to name a few. Nonetheless it is more than these real products; it's the technical mean that guests use to boost their surroundings. It should also be mentioned that the expertise and processes used to produce and to operate technological artifacts — anatomist know-how, making expertise, and various technological skills — are essential parts of technology. How Technology fits into the 21st Century Scenery Diagram displaying the circulation of Technology through Civilization. The above diagram from Harvard University College of Architectural illustrates the relationship between technology and world over the centuries, here it can be seen how come the terms? technology’ and? civilization’ are sometimes synonymous. From this the “Knowledge era” primary is usually about employment, industrial productivity, increased standard of living/enhanced way of living, etc . Listed here are a few types of advances in technology in the Caribbean. Education/Lifestyle/Communication Americas Region Caribbean Optical-ring System (“ARCOS”), is a great undersea broadband fiber-optic cable connection network which will supports the Flow Network. Flow supplies Digital Cable television, Landline and High Speed Net to several Caribbean countries bringing exposure to the outside world through Satellite tv; and mass communication throughout the telephone and internet. This kind of infrastructure can undoubtedly be taken as a instrument or agent of creation. Cable/Internet inside the Class Room E-Learning (Distance/Internet Learning) Microsoft’s Technology Inclusion CentreInternet Provides enhanced -ICT learning opportunities for Latin America communication between some crucial Caribbean member states. Job. Jamaican based e-Services Group International provides provided a large number of Caribbean jobs within the telecoms sector namely Jamaica and St . Lucia. E-Services’ core product is back-office support providers (inbound) which will several companies around the world are now deciding to outsource. Health Different Transnational Corporations e. g. Digicel & Cable & Wireless provide not only backoffice support nevertheless also mass employment in technical solutions eg. Change and Indication Engineers; Programmers; Network Quality Analysts & Technicians; etc . Technology transfer? Technology Copy enables persons, communities and businesses to get the know-how in applying a technology to a domestic will need or an industrial creation. One example is definitely the transfer of anaerobic technology to farmers, householders, educational institutions, the construction sector and other regions of the exclusive sector. Different transfers of technology will be in the foodstuff processing region for example preservation of tinned ackees for export, extractions and mushroom farming. It is important to evaluate technology transfer programs and projects on an ongoing basis to determine their achievement and to include lessons discovered in future activities. Measuring the results of technology transfer activities is a crucial component of technology transfer jobs. Technology transfer to the Caribbean Technology transfer to growing countries provides traditionally engaged the copy of equipment and strategies developed in industrialized nations around the world for use in lesser developing countries. Good technology transfer, however , includes knowledge of the human relationships between the primary principles active in the design of the technology, instead of implementation associated with an existing done product. To get successful transfer of technology to producing countries to happen, it is important to recognize the differences among developing countries and developing nations mainly because differences in cultural and economical conditions between the two types of nations may justify alternative strategies both to analysis and also to implementation of solutions. Way of measuring of technology transfer Some experts claim a transfer is successful only when it becomes a profitable merchandise or process, while others claim a copy is successful when the technology are at least examined for likely use by simply another person or organization. Quite a lot of technology will certainly not be commercialized due to (1) lack of financing; (2) management failures; or (3) unanticipated obstructions in the timing of the advantages, such as a move in the economy, changed market conditions, or the sudden appearance of your competing technology Innovation v/s Invention A definition to get innovation is usually stated as an object, patent, process, or perhaps technique, which usually displays an element of novelty. Also, it is the alteration of knowledge and ideas right into a benefit, which might be for professional or open public good. In economics, development deals with something new, which has to be substantially different, not an unimportant change. In economics the change must increase worth, customer value, or producer value. Innovative developments are intended to produce someone best, and the succession of many improvements grows the entire economy when an invention may well sometimes become based on before developments, aide or tips, and the means of invention requires at least the recognition that an existing concept or method can be modified or perhaps transformed into a new invention. The staring level of development is the generation of crafting ideas. Innovation is therefore the technique of taking these ideas to market or to usefulness. Innovation might refer to the two radical and incremental changes to products, techniques or solutions. The often unsaid goal of innovation should be to solve problems. Innovation is a crucial topic in the study of economics, business, technology, sociology, and executive. Since development is also regarded a major driver of the economic climate, the factors that lead to creativity are also regarded as critical to policy creators. Some technology represent a radical discovery in research or technology, which stretches the boundaries of man knowledge. Legal protection can be granted to a invention by way of a patent. The first dilemma to write off is the difference among invention and innovation. Invention refers to fresh concepts or possibly a product that derive via individual’s tips or by scientific research while Advancement, on the other hand, symbolizes the commercialization of the advent itself. It is important to have this kind of difference obviously outlined since an invention may have no economic value, if at all. In order to monetize an invention it is necessary to transform it into creativity, and such transformation is possible after we find a focus on customer, app or industry. There are several examples of great technology that generated little or no comes back to their inventors. In 1947 some researchers at the AT&T laboratories came up with the first transistor in the world. The invention was certainly patented, nevertheless the organization had not been able to find quickly an application intended for the new device. They did a superb job with all the invention, yet failed to develop the creativity. Precisely for that reason in 1952 AT&T made a decision to license your transistor. Intended for $ twenty-five. 000 companies like Arizona Instruments, Volvo and APPLE acquired a technology that could produce vast amounts of revenues in the coming years. Xerox is another qualified firm when we discuss missing big opportunities, exactly like AT&T we were holding very very good inventors, but they lacked to be able to transform this sort of inventions into innovations. Inside the famous Palo Alto Exploration Center (PARC) Xerox was your first organization in the world to formulate a personal computer system (years prior to Apple or IBM), a graphical oriented monitor, anything processing application, a workstation, a laserlight printer, a nearby area network, a hand-held mouse, as well as the list goes go. But it profited from almost none of such cutting-edge inventions Innovation in Technology and Technology Awards In November 2005, at a special awards banquet, Minister Phillip Paulwell, ressortchef (umgangssprachlich) of Commerce, Science and Technology, released an creativity awards programme. The triennial Awards Program is the latest initiative in the Jamaican government’s push to make the account of scientific research and creativity in a region traditionally better known for the music. By simply showcasing the contribution of Jamaica’s innovators, the Awards seek to foster better understanding of how development boosts nationwide development, and also to inspire the upcoming era. The Accolades grew from Jamaica’s Clinical Research Authorities (SRC) program on creativity and creativeness, which was released in 1988 and led to the establishment of the national Inventors and Pioneers Association. The SRC, a government agency, promotes landmark work across a range of sectors while using goal of harnessing innovative science and technology intended for national growth. They dished up as the Secretariat for the awards programme. The ten types were: Farming and Food, Education, Environmental Sustainability, Health and Safety, Entertainment Products, Anatomist, Energy, Popularisation of Technology and Technology, Information and Communication Technologies and Gadgets, and Manufacturing. Innovation in education within Jamaica. To accomplish and maintain competitive edge in this environment, Discovery bay, jamaica, like created economies, must look to advancement as a major influence of economic development. It is, consequently , imperative that Jamaica grows a national system of development to come up with policies and also to develop strategies to facilitate this drive. Until the Independence in 1962, Jamaica’s education program had grown without any kind of overall organizing. It was just like pre-colonial instances, when the authorities didn’t own any colleges and House of worship Schools formed the primary. Today’s education system is characterized to a hugely by federal government ownership of schools and a range of modern policies and programmes. In pre-independent Jamaica, there was simply no technical and vocational education, and the University or college of the West Indies, which usually had come about out of the 1948-established University College of the West Indies by Mona, was new. Also was the College of Arts, Science and Technology (CAST), which was likewise established in 1958. It offered courses in Architectural, Business Studies, Accountancy, Financial, Telecommunications, Pharmacology, Institutional Supervision and Basic Catering, Computer Science and also other technical themes. Now has been renowned University of Technology (UTech), it also presents some degree programs. However , with Independence, came the challenge of introducing new policies and programmes, and commencing the reform from the education program. Since then, Jamaica’s education system has been through a transformation, from emphasis on equality in education. Literacy for a lot of and a, long-term expansion programme aimed at providing the very best education the region could manage, and to make that open to every child was seen as brilliant, as Major, Secondary, and Tertiary level schools expanded. The Human Employment and Source Training (HEART), which started in 1982, is among the most significant educational innovations ever before introduced in to Jamaica. CARDIOVASCULAR is a collaborative effort of Government and the exclusive sector to coach young people to buy the skills necessary for employment as well as create a bank of trained manpower to meet Jamaica’s long term needs pertaining to skilled labour. Each CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM institution gives training in a particular group of skills – Building, Agricultural, Secretarial, Craft, Dress Making, Cosmetology and Tourism. The education sector has grown in sophistication until has created international transact, along with other solutions. The 10 years of the 1990’s was seen as the Reform of Supplementary Education (ROSE) programme, which has been established in 1992, to address problems impacting secondary education. At the tertiary level, there are Community Universities serving young people out of school and offering a wide range of topics including “A” Levels. There was Teacher Schooling Colleges with improved program in both equally range and depth. These are just a few improvements in the education system in Jamaica. UTech’s Technology Innovation Center In 1988 the Pioneeringup-and-coming Centre, a small company development device was established on the then School of Artistry Science and Technology (CAST) now The University of Technology (UTech). Initially the centre, under the leadership of Sandra Glasgow, had started programmes in the training of innovation and enterprise to students. Over the years the programme grew and it became required to expand the facilities in a full-blown Technology Innovation Hub. This was financed by a Carribbean Development Bank loan and with Canadian International Development Organization (CIDA) assistance and the University’s involvement. The centre now has an expanded role in providing Organization Services, Training/Consultancy, Study Trips, Facilities Leasing and the dotacion of space for business development. It is a highly powerful enterprise. Make use of technology to generate Economic Development. It is very important for emerging Caribbean leaders to recognize the potential of technology in economical development and generate fresh ideas for socio-economic issues that impact the Caribbean. At a conference went to by Perfect Minister Tanker Manning of Trinidad & Tobago in Boston, this individual predicts financial growth pertaining to Caribbean international locations. His prepare is to make the island (Trinidad & Tobago) a developed and effective participant in the “technological revolution” by the yr 2020. This individual said that at the end of the day, there is only 1 reason for govt, and that is to offer citizens the highest standard of living inside the shortest timeframe. He mentioned a number of development plants that is in structure within the next year, the development of a great industrial recreation area devoted to research and the cover universal Internet and wifi service through the island by simply 2008. Technology is critical to our country (Jamaica) and the rest of the Caribbean region for many causes. First and foremost, technology generates lasting economic expansion. That is, creating high-wage jobs, world-class export products and output growth that is certainly very essential to our long term global competition. Technology also helps to improve each of our quality of life… from new drugs and remedies that assist individuals live for a longer time and more healthy lives, to agricultural improvements that enable mass harvests with less herbicides and pesticides. Developments in technology are vital to our work to protect the country while also the region, hardening our infrastructure, finding dangers and empowering the defense forces. This period of technology also keeps extraordinary guarantee for the future of the educational system(s). Technology may also be used to expand a region’s knowledge foundation, as also to invite reinforcing periods of innovation and purchase. In that, innovators are often times interested in regions offering opportunities to pursue cutting edge analysis, to start up commercial endeavors and obtain financing to take items from research laboratory to market. Commercial & Gardening Technological creation in the region There continues to be nice that agro-industrial development, also at the small and cottage sector levels, is critically important for the expansion and diversification from the agricultural sector in the Caribbean community. Attractive agro-industrial activities can increase the markets for primary farming products, add value simply by vertically integrating primary development and meals processing systems and lessen post pick losses. Additionally such activities could reduce seasonality of ingestion of a range processed foods, raise the viability, success and sustainability of production systems through their impact on increasing farm building incomes, rural employment and foreign exchange profits, while lowering marketing hazards. However , with few exceptions, the agro-industrial sector continues to be rudimentary, bad and mainly without significant institutional, technical and monetary support. The making jams, jellies, fruit nectars and also other beverages is well established inside the Caribbean. However the technology utilized for the small scale-processing sector has remained relatively static and classic. Thus in many respects other crucial constraints towards the development of the agro-processing sector are the not enough proper using research and technology, an absence of trained employees, inadequate specialized and bureaucratic and promoting support. The state as well as the private agro-processing sector have never invested in the development of the most effective exploration, nor they have readily accepted and followed the most appropriate and current technology. These problems are even more serious when it comes to small maqui berry farmers since they generally do not have the financial resources or perhaps credit services at their disposal to invest in new operations, human resource, administration or technological innovation. In CARICOM Countries you will discover organized and staffed facilities serving the agro-processing sector. These include the foodstuff Science and Technology Unit, Department of Chemical Architectural, U. W. I., and CARIRI in Trinidad, IAST in Guyana, and the Jamaican Scientific Exploration Council and the Food Technology Unit of the Ministry of Agriculture in Jamaica. Most countries in the Caribbean have undergone a profound economical transformation within the last 40 years, coming from an essentially agricultural overall economy towards a predominantly service-oriented one. Typically, agricultural economies in the region were based on one or two major export crops just like sugar or perhaps bananas. For many countries in the area, the modernization of culture has significantly lagged at the rear of the rest of the economy. This has not merely resulted in a family member decline of agriculture since an economic activity but in many cases also in an absolute drop. 4 On those grounds, many Caribbean countries currently run significant agricultural operate deficits. 5 A dozen countries in the region went an farming trade deficit of more than US$ 400 per capita in 1997 remarkably the smaller and richer countries in the region. Several countries include even furnished with cultivation almost totally, as cash flow opportunities consist of sectors with the economy is much more attractive. The Scientific Research Council and Applicable Regional Technologies The Scientific Research Council (SRC) is Jamaica’s principal open public sector company, responsible for the fostering and coordination of scientific study and the advertising of it is application. Almost all of the Council’s projects support the growth and advancement the agro-industrial sector in Jamaica through research, adaptation of available systems, creation of recent and appropriate technologies and the provision of training and specialized assistance. Medical and specialized information is usually increasingly driving productivity and economic progress in created economies and it is proving to get of better significance in national development than other assets such as all-natural resources, low-cost labour and finance. The popularization of Science and Technology (S&T) in various forms, especially among the list of youth, is therefore a focus area intended for the SRC, as it is powered by the idea that S&T is a means for improving the quality of life. The Scientific Research Council (SRC) is a company of the Ministry of Business, Science and Technology and was formed in 1960. When it comes on to waste materials management and alternative strength, the Scientific Research Council is the single provider of anaerobic technology in Discovery bay, jamaica. Anaerobic can be described as technical expression, which literally means without surroundings. In sewage treatment the absence of oxygen is mentioned as anoxic; and anaerobic is used to indicate the a shortage of any electron acceptor (nitrate, sulphate or oxygen). The SRC supplies technical support for the National Water Commission, communities, schools, farmers and real estate developers in commissioning and maintaining waste treatment devices. In the Agro industry, they developed technology for the crystallizing and syruping of ginger and in addition they developed make into effect-sophisticated technology for making multi-purpose caramel. In both equally cases the technology was transferred locally. They also designed composite flours comprising of 20%-30% indigenous material (yam, breadfruit, cassava, banana), as a substitute for imported wheat flour which is especially suited for persons who are allergic to gluten seen in wheat. In the late 1990’s due to a short fall in the availability responsibility free PL480 rice and emerging options in the milling of paddy rice, a forensic examination of the CARICOM treaty business lead by the technology minister (Phillip Paulwell). Ultimately secured a landmark decision. CARICOM allowed Jamaica to import paddy rice labeled as natural material, although this required eventually compelled a?  tightening’ of CARICOM treaty, Discovery bay, jamaica will preserve this until the year 2010. The SRC is the local focal point for the CEIS (Caribbean Strength Information System) network. The network involves eighteen countries committed to the pooling and exchange of energy information. CEIS has spearheaded programmes targeted at educating plan makers and consumers about clean technology, reducing energy costs, and renewable energy. One very good energy project is the Wington Wind Farmville farm which is a wholly owed additional of the Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica, incorporated April 12th 2k. This is a 20. 7 MW(Mega Watt) wind driven electricity plant in Gatwick, which has made enough power to avoid high levels of Carbon (CO2) exhausts. (The Period since its commission to Mar 2007 has seen a great avoidance of 126, 214 tonnes of carbon release. In the aquaculture industry, designed novel fish feed items? de-capsulated and normal bout shrimp ova available in cans produced from Artemia grown in Yallahs Sodium Ponds for ornamental seafood industry. Reduce importation, conserving foreign exchange. Artemia (Brine Shrimp) is important as being a starter supply. Most fish need live feed following hatching. The objective of the Artemia project is to support the aqua-culture industry by providing in your area produced fish feed; reducing the cost of a few of the ingredients of fish feed, and the final cost to the consumer. There is a lot more that this Scientific Analysis Council has been doing in the development of applicable technology in Discovery bay, jamaica, more of which is often obtained from their website given in each of our appendix. Additional state owned technology related organizations and policies consist of: The Nationwide Commission about Science & Technology (NCST)? it’s mission is to enhance the quality of life of most Jamaicans throughout the application of technology and technology. Science & Technology (S&T) Policy? this kind of policy establishes the construction to promote development and the appropriate funding of S&T activities which in turn energizes diversification and productivity. Biotechnology/Biosafety Policy? produced by the NCST and the Countrywide Biosafety Committee (NBC) to strike an elementary balance between protection of Jamaica’s biodiversity and ecology, versus potential health risk associated with biotechnology. Technology Expense Fund? established to financing investment in commercial actions which contain substantial advancement. These types of investments ordinarily do not qualify for various other funding coming from banks and so forth Companies lately benefiting from GOJ R&D duty incentives structure include: Strength Systems & Design Institute? St . Jones Solar Job Technological Solutions Limited? Building Technological Skills throughout HACCP G & D Breakthrough discovery Corporation Limited? Indoor Air Quality Research Project Christiana Potato Declaring no to prop Co-operative Connection Ltd? Cells Culture Job. Joint venture A joint venture (often abbreviated JV) is a legal entity created between several parties to undertake economic activity together. The parties accept to create a fresh entity simply by both adding to equity, and so they then share in the earnings, expenses, and control of the enterprise. The venture may be for one certain project simply, or a continuous business relationship such as the Sony Ericsson joint venture. This really is in contrast to a strategic alliance, which involves no equity stake by the participants, and is a much less rigid arrangement. Agencies can also kind joint undertakings, for example , a child welfare organization in the Midwest initiated a joint venture in whose mission is always to develop and service customer tracking application for man service companies. The five partners almost all sit on the joint venture corporation’s board, and together had been able to supply the community with a much-needed resource. The key phrase generally refers to the purpose of the entity but not to a type of entity. Therefore , a partnership may be a company, limited liability company, collaboration or various other legal structure, depending on many considerations including tax and tort legal responsibility. When happen to be joint undertakings used? Joint ventures are normal in the coal and oil industry, and therefore are often cooperations between a nearby and international company (about 3/4 happen to be international). A joint venture is often seen as a incredibly viable organization alternative in this sector, while the companies may complement all their skill units while it offers the foreign organization a geographic presence. Studies show a failure charge of 30-61%, and that 60% failed to start or pale away inside 5 years. (Osborn, 2003) It is also well-known that Joint ventures in low-developed countries show the instability, and this JVs regarding government partners have higher incidence of failure (private firms seem to be better outfitted to supply crucial skills, advertising networks and so forth ) Furthermore, JVs have demostrated to fail totally under remarkably volatile require and speedy changes in product technology. [citation needed] Some countries, such as the People’s Republic of China and tiawan, require foreign companies to form joint ventures with household firms in order to enter a market. This necessity often makes technology moves and managerial control towards the domestic partner…. Reasons for creating a joint venture Internal factors 1 . Growing costs and risks 2 . Improving usage of financial resources a few. Economies of scale and advantages of size 4. Usage of new technologies and customers 5. Usage of innovative bureaucratic practices Competitive goals 1 . Influencing structural evolution with the industry 2 . Pre-empting competition 3. Protecting response to hazy industry restrictions 4. Creation of more robust competitive devices 5. Speed to market. 6th. Improved agility Strategic desired goals 1 . Groupe 2 . Copy of technology/skills 3. Diversification Governments dotacion to suited incentives intended for innovators Discovery bay, jamaica has incentive programs to get foreign shareholders. The incentives are typically approved to firms that generate foreign exchange, make use of Jamaican recycleables, create job opportunities, or bring in new technology. Forms of incentives given by the government will include Tax incentives, which include tax holidays and duty-free entry of raw materials and capital items for accepted incentives times. Tax vacations are also expanded to business locating in less designed regions. In Jamaica, the government is looking at the way assigned pay and grading systems operate inside the civil services. It is very clear that efficiency management is usually not successful enough. The backlinks between pay out and goals are not constantly clear. We should use the pay systems and performance shell out in particular in creative strategies to provide successful incentives to obtain sustained top quality performance and also to encourage creativity and crew working. Non-pay incentives tend to be just as important in staff recruiting and determination as pay. Such incentives may take many forms: better training and development options, good profession prospects, options for career breaks, superior working environment, versatile working, family-friendly working procedures, recognition by means of national accolades and accolades or regional workplace strategies therefore you have the need to ensure why these are used efficiently to attract and reward staff. Our government can provide suitable incentives to get our community innovators. Jamaica adopted economic vehicle known as Venture Capital Trust Scheme, that has been started in 1995 from the Uk. The Investment capital Trust structure is designed to encourage individuals to commit indirectly in various small higher-risk trading businesses whose stocks and shares and investments are not outlined on a acknowledged stock exchange, by simply investing through Venture Capital Cartouche (VCTs). So , if you buy a VCT, you spread the investment risk over a quantity of companies. VCTs would be companies listed on the Discovery bay, jamaica Stock Exchange, and therefore are similar to investment trusts. Finance managers who also are usually members of much larger investment groupings run all of them. Investors sign up to for, or otherwise acquire, stocks in a VCT, which invests in trading firms, providing these funds to help these groups develop and grow. VCTs realize all their investments and make new ones occasionally. We must agree to vCTs with regards to the plan. Approval has if they will meet particular conditions. Should you invest in them you may be allowed to various tax and capital gains duty relief, and VCTs are exempt from company tax on any increases arising within the disposal with their investments. Endorsement of a VCT means that this currently complies with the requirements permitting investors to qualify for certain tax reliefs. Tax bosse are available only to individuals old 18 years or over, and never to trustees, companies or others who have invest in VCTs. There are two income tax reliefs’, they are permission from income tax on returns from common shares in VCTs (. dividend relief. ), and income tax alleviation. A percentage in the amount fell by the person for new regular shares which carry not any preferential privileges or privileges of payoff throughout the length of three years from the date on which they were released. You can get this relief pertaining to the tax year through which these qualified shares had been issued, provided that you hold the shares for at least three years. You can also get two capital gains taxes (CGT) relief’s, they are exemption from CGT on gains that happen if you dispose of your normal shares in VCTs (. CGT permission. ), and deferral of capital benefits where you obtain income tax comfort on an expense in VCT shares (. deferral alleviation. ). You may defer an overall total amount of gains up to the amount used the VCT shares. The VCT stocks must be granted in the period beginning a year before and ending a year after the gain arises. You can get two of the reliefs, dividend relief and CGT permission, for newly issued shares and second-hand shares bought, for example , through the Stock Exchange. But income tax pain relief and deferral relief could be claimed only when you sign up to for new shares. You can get VCT treliefsf’s if you acquire stocks and shares in VCTs up to a established maximum every tax 12 months. You can assert the reliefs, where appropriate, from the Taxes Office, which usually deals with the tax affairs. To claim deferment relief, you must be citizen or typically resident in the Jamaica equally when you make the disposal-giving surge to the gain and when you invest in the VCT. Training may be the teaching of vocational or perhaps practical since it relates to specific useful skills, which will improve individual and organizational efficiency. It basically.

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