Theoretical Phonetics Exam Answers Essay
1.Phonetics as a branch of linguistics. Phonetics and other disciplines. Applications of phonetics. Ph-s is a basic branch of linguistics that studies the inventory, structure and functions of the speech sounds. Ph-s studies the phonemes and their allophones, the syllabic structure, the distribution of stress, intonation and the ways in which they are organized. Ph-s investigates into a system of units and the variation of the units in all types and styles of spoken language. Some disciplines like lexicology and grammar can not function without ph-s. Ph-s is connected with physics mathematics, statistics, physiology, anatomy, anthropology, history, archaeology. 2.Branches of phonetics. Articulatory ph-s is the study of the way the vocal organs are used to produce speech sounds. Acoustic ph-s is the study of the physical properties of speech sounds. Auditory ph-s is the study of the way people perceive speech sounds. Phonology вЂ“ the functional (linguistic) aspect of speech sounds. Ph-s divided: general (special) and ph-s of particular language (descriptive). Historical ph-s traces the changes in the phonetic system of a language. Ph-s can be: theoretical (studies the material form of sounds) and practical (studies the functioning of phonetic units in language). All the branches of ph-s are closely connected with one another and with other branches of linguistics. 3.Aspects of the sound matter of language. Sound aspects: a) the articulatory aspect (the movements and positions of the speech organs, power, vibration, resonator, obstruction mechanism). b) the acoustic aspect (sound waves вЂ“ vocal cords> tone, overtones, harmonics, fundamental frequency> pitch of voice, amplitude> intensity); c) the auditory (perceptive) aspect (physiological mechanism (ear> brain), psychological mechanism (to remember phonetic similarities)); d) the functional (linguistic) aspect (phonemes, syllables, stress, and intonation> meaningful units (morphemes, words, utterances). 4.Components of the phonetic system of language. The basic component вЂ“ phonemic вЂ“ the system of ph-mes (E in form of their alloph.), 3 asp.: the system of ph-mes as isolated units; the distribution of the alloph. of theВ ph-mes; the methods of joining speech sounds together in words. The second component вЂ“ the syllabic structure of words, 2 inseparable asp. вЂ“ syllable formation and syllable division. The third component is the accentual structure of words as pronounced in isolation (3 asp.: the acoustic nature of word accent; the position of the accent in words; the degrees of word accent). The fourth component of the phonetic system is the intonational structure of utterances. Phonemic, syllabic, accentual and intonational components of the ph-c system of language constitute its pronunciation. 5.National and regional pronunciation variants in English. Unlike written, spoken language varies from place to place. Such distinct forms of lang. are called dialects. The language is varied between language communities (from small groups to nations). National lang. is a historical category created by conditions of economic and political situation which characterizes the nation. In English E a great diversity in the realization of the lang. (particularly the pronunc.) Every national variant of English has considerable differences in pronunc., vocabulary and grammar, but they all have much in common. Every national variety of lang. falls into territorial or regional dialects. Dialects вЂ“ differences in pronunciation (accents), grammar and vocabulary. 1 of the dialects becomes the standard lang. of the nation and its pronunciation or accent вЂ“ the standard pronunciation (sometimes called вЂњan orthoepic normвЂќ or вЂњliterary pronunciationвЂќ). 6.British and American pronunciation models вЂ“ 2 main types of Eng spoken nowadays. A pronunciation model is a carefully chosen and defined accent of a language. English-based group: English, Welsh, Australian, New Zealand English. American-based group: United States English, Canadian English. Scottish and Ireland English fall somewhere between eng-based and amer-based grps. Some scientists insist that English, Welsh, Scottish and Ireland eng. should be combined into British subgrp. (by political, geograph. and cultural similarities). Daniel Jones, English Pronouncing Dictionary(1917): PSP> RP(вЂњkingвЂ™s lang.вЂќ, 1926)> BBC(2003-16th ed. ) No dialect is an American standard, but Networking English language is the nearest be known as as such. several. Most distinctive features of LABELLISE BASSE CONSOMMATION English and Network English language.??? EnglishВ is the pronunc. of professional audio system employed by the BBC. Balance of artic. Horiz. and vertic. activity of the tongue, combinative pronounc., length are distinctive in BBS eng. Consonants: (de)voicing, loss of [h] in rapid speech, preliminary вЂњhwвЂќ (some pronounce weakened), loss of last [? ], glottal stop, palatalized final [kвЂ™]. The best variant of GA is definitely Network British. Vowels: no long-short difference; some diphthongs вЂ“ since biphonic combin-s; some diphthongs are completely diff.; 2 to 3 pronounce [r] between vow. and downsides. (or silence); nasalization (when followed by sinus cons. ); cons-ts: [l] has no alloph.; low division betw. [t] and [d] ([t] might drop out); diff. articul. of [r]; вЂњwhвЂќвЂќwвЂќ; [j] is often weakened. almost 8. The articulatory classification of English vowels. Daniel Jones, cardinal vowel system. Classific. criteria: steadiness of artic., tongue pos., lip detras., character of vow. end, length, tenseness. Roundedness (labialization). Nasalization. several grps: monophthongs, diphthongs, diphthongoids. Height (vertical): 1)close 2)mid 3)open (all narrow-broad). Backness (horizontal): front, front retracted, central, back, back advanced. 9. The articulatory classification of English language consonants. Occlusive=complete obstruction. Constrictive=incomplete obstr. Occ-constr=affricates. Type of obstruction, place of connection and energetic organ of speech, power of assemblage вЂ“ relevant artic. features. Degree of noise: 1)noise disadvantages. (occlusive, constrictive, occlusive-constrictive); 2)sonorants (occlusive, occlusive-constrictive (lateral, medial) Place of assemblage: 1)labial (bilabial, labio-dental); 2)lingual (forelingual, mediolingual, backlingual); 3)glottal. 10. Phoneme as many-sided dialectic oneness of terminology. Types of allophones. Exclusive and irrelevant features of the phoneme. Phoneme is used to mean вЂњsoundвЂќ in its contrastive sense; allophone is used intended for variants of the phoneme. Shcherba(rus): the phoneme is a minimal abstract dialect unit recognized in talk in the form of presentation sounds opposable to additional phonemes of the identical language to tell apart the meaning of morphemes and words. В Material asp. вЂ“ the conclusion of the ph-me in the forms of its alloph-s (principal, closest to the ph-me, or subsidiary). Abstract or net. вЂ“ the generalization of your ph-me with a native speaker. The stable of the phoneme вЂ“ a lot of money of exclusive articulatory features possessed by allophones. Practical asp. вЂ“ to distinguish one morpheme, word or utterance from an additional. The stable is formed by the articulatory features (relevant(labialization) or irrelevant(aspiration)). 11. Main phonological schools. Users of Moscow phonological university (Reformatsky, Sidorov, etc) declare two diverse ph-mes in various allomorphs of the same morpheme may be represented for the synchronic level by one particular and the same sound, which is their common variant and, consequently, one particular and the same sound may well belong to 1 ph-me more simply and to another ph-me in another word. The second, Leningrad phonological school (Shcherba, Zinder, etc), claim that distinct allomorphs varies in both allophonic and phonemic composition. According for this school, speech sounds in a phonologically natural position participate in that phoneme with whose principal alternative they totally or nearly coincide. Acc. to the 3 rd school (Prague Linguistic Circle, Trubetzkoy, Jacobson) there exist types of phonemes greater than the unit phoneme (the archiphoneme вЂ“ a variety of distinctive features common to two phonemes). doze. The system of vowel phonemes in English language. Problem of diphthongs. 20 vowels: [i:, a:, o:, u:,?:, i, e, Г¦,?,?,?,?; ei, ai, oi,??, e?,??, i actually? ]. The classification is based on distinctive oppositions: 1)Stability of artic-n (monophthongs vs . diphthongs; diphthongs or diphthongoids). 2)Pos. of the tongue (horizontal (front вЂ“ central, back вЂ“ central); vertical (close вЂ“ mid-open, open вЂ“ mid-open). 3)Pos. of lips ((un)rounded). Diphthongs вЂ“ 3 def.: 1 def. is as in a diphthong only one aspect serves as a syllabic center, a diphthong is a sole sound. two def. of your diphthong being a single appear is based on the instability in the second element. The 3rd is since merely one element is usually accented plus the other is unaccented, a diphthong is known as a single audio. Problem of length: the between brief and lengthy vowels isn't only quantitative nevertheless also qualitative (different positions of the almost all the tongue). Qualitative difference is the main relevant feature that serves to differentiate very long and short vowel ph-mes because quantitative characteristics of long vowels depend on the positioning theyВ occupy in a word: a) these are the longest in the terminal location; b) they are shorter ahead of voiced consonants; c) they are the shortest prior to voiceless consonants. 13. The program of consonant phonemes in English. Issue of affricates. 24 cons-ts: [p, b, big t, d, t, g, n, v,?, Г°, s, z .,?, 3, they would, t?, d 3, m, and,?, w, 3rd there’s r, 1, j]. The category is based on distinctive oppositions: 1)Degree of noises. 2)Place of articul. (labial vs . typically, lingual, lingual vs . glottal). 3)Manner of articul. (occlus. vs . constrict., shrink. vs . affricates, constrict. unicentral vs . bicentral). 4)vocal wires work + the power of articul. (voiceless fortis vs . voiced lenis). 5)Pos. of the soft palate (oral versus nasal). The challenge of affricates вЂ“ their particular phonological position and their quantity. Q: will be [t?, d3] monophonemic noises or biphonemic comb-s (clusters)? If monoph. -c after that are [tr, dr] and [t?, dГ°] вЂ“ affricates? Rus. phoneticians look at the func. aspect of ph-mes, the most significant 1. Monoph-c def.: a) its elements belong to the same syllable b) it is produced by one particular articulatory effort c) it is duration should never exceed normal duration of factors. British ph-cians apply syllabic invisibility, articulatory invis. and duration standards to [t?, m? ], [ts, dz], [tr, dr], [t?, tГ°] and say, that they can all are affricates. But Russian scien-s take a look at them coming from morph-cal and phon-cal pov and decide that only [t?, g? ] are monophonemic, and others вЂ“ biphonemic complexes. 14. Modifications of English consonants and vowels in speech. Separated pronunc. вЂ“ 3 phases: 1)initial st . (on-glide); 2)medial st . (retention); 3)final st (off-glide, release). 2 ways of linking conversation sounds: I-Merging of periods. II-Interpretation of stages. We may join: a)cons + vowel (C+V) [mi: ]. b)V & C [? n]. c)C+C[bl?? ] blow. d)V+V [riГ¦l? ti] reality. My spouse and i is simpler way. II generally when negatives. of a related or the same nature are joined. Changes types: assimilation (adaptive modification of a C by a adjoining C), hotel (denoting the interchanges of VC or perhaps CV types), reduction (qualitative or quantitative weakening of vowels in unstressed pos), elision (a complete loss in sounds), and inserting (a process of audio addition). C: Assimil.: place/manner of artic. /work of voc. cords/degree of sound. Accomodation(lip detras. ). Elision: loss of [h] inВ person. and possessive pronouns (have)/loss of [l] in the event that preceded simply by [o: ](always). Insrtion: linking [r] (car owner)/intrusive [r] вЂ“ itвЂ™s pronounced exactly where not spelled (china and glass). V: reduction (quantitive/quailitive), accom. (positional length, nasalization post [n, m]. 15. Alternations of presentation sounds in English. Sound alternations вЂ“ variations in words, their very own derivatives and grammatical type words. Historical alternations are traced to the ph-mic within earlier times of the terminology development, reflected in present-day English. Types: 1 . vowel alt-ns (distinction of abnormal verbal forms/distinction of causal verbal forms/distinction of regions of speech in etymologically correlated words); 2-consonants alternations (distinction of infrequent verbal forms/distinction of areas of speech/vowel and consonant alternations). Contextual вЂ“ altern-s propagate on the synchronic level inside the present-day British. They are researched by morphophonology. Looks at the sounds this their weak pos. Moscow sch. вЂ“ the theory of neutralization of ph-mes (when 2+ close sounds will be unusually non-contrastive in certain pos-ns). Leningrad sch. asserts the ph-me can be independent of the morpheme (ph-me canвЂ™t lose special feat-s). 16. Theories about syllable split and creation. Syllables вЂ“ minimal pronounceable units into which sounds show a tendency to group. Syl-ls type morphemes, phrases. The syl-l can be examined on articulatory, acoustic, oral and useful levels. Jespersen, the sonority theory: each sound is characterized by a particular degree of sonority which is understood us traditional property of your sound that determines their perceptibility. ShcherbaвЂ™s theory of muscular anxiety: the anxious of assemblage increases within the range of prevocalic consonants then decreases in the range of postvocalic consonants. There is not any adequate explanation of how syllable is. 2 pov: 1)S? me consider the syl-le to become purely articulatory unit whithout any practical value. 2)majority treat the syl-le because the smallest pronounceable unit with a few linguistic function. Functional pov вЂ“ a syl-le: a)is a chain of phonemes of varying duration; b) is definitely constructed based on C вЂ“ V distinction; c)V are used as syllable nuclei atlanta divorce attorneys language although C aren't in every; d)specific rules of ph-mes division in the syl-bic structures. seventeen. The structure and capabilities of syllable in British. Syl-le development is based on the phonological competitors V вЂ“ C. Sixth is v are usually syl-bic, C are not (excluding [l, m, n] вЂ“ syl-bic in last pos). Many syllables have one main or more rimant preceding the nucleus (the syllable onset). Many syllables have one or maybe more consonants, following nucleus (closed syllables вЂ“ the syllable coda). The combination of nucleus and coda has a particular significance, making up the rhyming property of a syllable. English language lang вЂ“ closed form of syl-les; Rus вЂ“ wide open type. The challenge of syl-le division is the fact in some words (city, extra, etc) there is not any obvious method to decide how to divide the term into syl-les. 2 func. of syl-les: 1)constitutive function (the syl-le can be a part of word or perhaps morpheme, utterance). 2)distinctive function (the syl-le can distinguish words and word-forms). 18. Word tension in English. Stressed (accented) вЂ“ syl-le(s) which are uttered with more popularity than the various other syllables from the word. Phrase stress is stress in isolated words. Stressed syl-le: greater power, more revived articul.; larger pitch of voice; the amount, the quality of vowel. Lang-s can have set or cost-free stress (English and Russian вЂ“ free of charge stress, might also be shifting to diff. lexical units, elements of speech, gramm. Forms). N of degrees of stress sama dengan N of syl-les. Primary stress=strongest=? 1 . Secondary strongest stress=? 2 . Others sama dengan weak anxiety. Opinions issues def. differ among phoneticians. 3 func-s of expression stress: 1)constitutes a word, sets up the syllables of a word into a terminology unit which has a definite accentual structure. 2) identificatory or perhaps recognitive func. вЂ“ enables a person to identify a particular accentual style of a term. 3)distinctive function вЂ“ capacity for differentiating the meaning of words or all their forms. Recessive tendency вЂ“ unstable accentual structure as a result of diff. origins. Rhythmical propensity вЂ“ the appearance of the second stress. 19. Intonation and prosody: description, functions, components, spheres of application. Timbre E in each and every lang. but functions differently. Contour research approach: the actual unit where linguistic that means can be fastened is a tone-group (assumpt. that intonationВ consists of basic efficient вЂњblocksвЂќ). Grammatical app.: timbre is a complex of three systemic variables: tonality, tonicity and develop, which are connected with grammatical groups. American sch. considers В«pitch phonemesВ» and В«contoursВ» to be the main products of timbre. Russian linguists agree that intonation is a whole, formed by significant variations of pitch, loudness and " cadence ". Different phoneticians suggest diff. functions of intonation. Nikolayeva: delimitating, integrating and semantic. Tseplitis: semantic, syntactic and stylistic capabilities. Cheremisina: expansive, distinctive, delimitating, expressive, appellative, aesthetic, adding. Other phoneticians also display some difference in planning the linguistic functions of intonation. Amazingly: emotional, grammatical, informational, calcado, psychological, indexical functions. 20. The composition of British tone-group. We may consider the distinct variations in the direction of frequency, pitch level and pitch range in the pitch aspect. The most important indivisible tones in English will be: Low Fall season, High Fall, Low Go up, High Go up, and Fall-Rise. Falling tone= certainty; increasing tone=uncertainty. Diff. tones may well combine their meanings. Presentation parameters happen to be pitch runs (normal, wide, and narrow) and message levels (high, medium, and low). Volume differentiates anger, menace, pleasure, etc . The tempo suggests the rate with the utterance and pausation (normal, slow and fast вЂ“ important and unimportant parts). Speech is definitely splitted in to phonetic wholes, phrases, timbre groups through pauses (a complete prevent of phonation). Pauses: short (separate inton. grps in a phrase); much longer (end from the phrase); long (2x for a longer time than brief вЂ“ phonetic wholes). Syntactic pauses separate phonopassages, keyword phrases, and expression grps. Intonation patterns вЂ“ the basic devices of intonation вЂ“ in order to actualize syntagms (semantically and syntactically complete group of words) in conversation. In phonetics, syntagms are called intonation grps (tone-grps). A lot of intonation patterns may be totally colourless in meaning and some form the prosodic system of The english language. 21. The phonological degree of intonation. Intonology (a subset of phonology) studies the larger units of connected speech: expression groups, phrases and phonetic passages. It is just possible to create a rough category ofВ inton. habits because they are very diff. in their nature. Virtually any unit in the inton. routine can be phonological units (distinctive function). That they form a complex system of intonemes, tonemes, accentemes, chronemes, and so forth The terminal tone вЂ“ the most strong phonological device (its resistance distinguishes different types of sentence). N of fatal tones indicates N of intonation grps, which may be necessary for meaning. The increase of loudness+terminal tones collectively single out the semantic (expression) centre with the utterance. Grammatical words might be also important towards the meaning (sometimes word was). The most important position of the opposition of fatal tones is usually differentiating the attitudes and emotions. Different varieties of pre-heads, minds, the same as pitch ranges and levels fulfil their special function inside the combination with other prosodic constituents. Sometimes expression neutralizes or compensates the lexical content of the utterance (Phone him at once, please). Lack of harmony between timbre and phrase content, or intonation as well as the grammatical framework of the utterance may in order to produce irony or insult someone. 22. Methods of phonetic analysis. You will find subjective (introspective) and aim methods of phonetic investigation. Immediate observation (oldest, simplest) вЂ“ observing the movements and positions of peopleвЂ™s organs of presentation in pronouncing various speech sounds. Objective methods (palatography, laryngoscopy, picture taking, cinematography, X-ray photography and cinematography and electromyography) as well as direct observation are trusted in fresh phonetics. The aim methods and the subjective ones are contributory and not contrary to one another. Traditional acoustic phonetics attempts to measure and analyze the movement from the air in the terms of acoustics. The microphone is definitely introduced in to the speech string вЂ“ it converts the air movement into electrical activity and studies the result regarding frequency of vibration plus the amplitude of vibration. The sound spectrograph really helps to investigate the spectra of speech noises. Pitch being a component of expression can be investigated by intonograph. The traditional aspect of speech sounds is additionally investigated through speech-synthesizing devices. 23. Phonostylistics. Types and designs of pronunciation in English. Styles ofВ pronunciation вЂ“ unique forms of conversation suited to the goal and the contents of the utterance, the circumstances of communication, the character of the viewers, etc . A number of different styles of pronunciation may be known, but generally approved classification of styles of pronunciation doesnвЂ™t can be found. Jones: the rapid familiar style, the slower colloquial style, the natural style (addressing a fair-sized audience), the attained style of the stage, the acquired style (singing). Shcherba: 1) colloquial style attribute of peopleвЂ™s quiet talk; 2) complete style, very clear articul. of all syllables of each and every word. Gaiduchic: solemn (????????????? ), scientific business (?????? -??????? ), official organization (?????????? -??????? ), everyday (??????? ), and familiar (?????????????? ) вЂ“ they will correlate with functional kinds of the language. It can be preferable to consider style classifications with difference. criteria individually. By the purpose of communication: educational, academic (scientific), publicistic, declamatory (artistic), conversational (familiar) designs. There are elements that affect intonation. Any style is seldom realized in the pure form.
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