Translation Technique by Molina and Albir Essay

Translation Technique by Molina and Albir Essay

Cet article a pour perspective de cerner la notion de strategy de version entendue tel un dieses instruments d’analyse textuelle qui permet d’etudier le usage de l’equivalence par rapport a l’original. Nous rappelons tout d’abord les differentes definitions ou classifications qui ont ete proposees ainsi que les scandale terminologiques, conceptuelles et de classification qui en ont decoule. Nous-memes donnons ensuite notre definition de la approach de traduction en la differenciant de la trainingsmethode et de la strategie sobre traduction ainsi que proposons une approche dynamique et fonctionnelle de celleci. Pour clore, nous definissons chacune des diverses methods de version existantes ain en presentons une toute derniere classification. Cette proposition a ete appliquee dans votre cadre d’une recherche au sein de traduction kklk elements culturels dans les traductions en arabe de Cent ans de isolation de Garcia Marquez. FUZY The aim of here is info to simplify the notion of translation technique, understood as an instrument of textual analysis that, in conjunction with other instruments, allows us to analyze how translation equivalence works in relation to the first text. 1st, existing explanations and classifications of translation techniques will be reviewed and terminological, conceptual and classification confusions will be pointed out. Second of all, translation methods are expanded, distinguishing these people from translation method and translation strategies. The definition can be dynamic and functional. Finally, we present a classification of translation techniques which has been tested in a study in the translation of cultural components in Persia translations of A Hundred Years of Solitude by simply Garcia Marquez. MOTS-CLES/KEYWORDS translation technique, translation method, translation strategy, translation equivalence, functionalism 1 . TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES WHILE TOOL INTENDED FOR ANALYSIS: THE CURRENT CONFUSIONS The categories used to analyze goedkoop allow all of us to study just how translation performs. These categories are linked to text, framework and method. Textual classes describe components of accordance, cohesion and thematic development. Contextual types introduce all of the extra-textual components related to the context of source text and translation production. Process categories are made to answer two basic inquiries. Which option has the ubersetzungsprogramm chosen to accomplish the translation project, i actually. e., which usually method has become chosen? How has the translator solved the problems that have come about during the translation process, we. e., which will strategies have already been chosen? Yet , research (or teaching) requirements may make this important to consider textual micro-units as well, frankly, how the result of the translation Meta, XLVII, 4, 2002 01. Meta 47/4. Partie 1 498 11/21/02, 2: 15 PM HOURS translation tactics revisited 499 functions regarding the corresponding unit in the origin text. To accomplish this we need translation techniques. I was made aware about this require in a examine of the treatment of cultural elements in Arabic translations of any Hundred Years of Solitude1. Textual and in-text categories are not sufficient to recognize, classify and name the options chosen by translators for each and every unit studied. We necessary the category of translation techniques that allowed us to describe the actual steps taken by the translators in each textual micro-unit and obtain clear data about the overall methodological choice chosen. Yet , there is several disagreement amongst translation college students about translation techniques. This disagreement is not only terminological yet also conceptual. There is a lack of general opinion as to what name to give to call the categories, several labels are used (procedures, techniques, strategies) and sometimes they are confused with other principles. Furthermore, different classifications have already been proposed as well as the terms frequently overlap. This post presents the definition and classification of translation techniques we used in our study from the treatment of social elements in Arabic translations of A Hundred Years of Solitude. We as well present a crucial review of earlier definitions and classifications of translation techniques. 2 . THE VARIOUS APPROACHES TO CLASSIFYING TRANSLATION TACTICS 2 . 1 ) Translation Technological Procedures inside the Compared Stylistics. Vinay and Darbelnet’s master work Stylistique comparee ni francais ainsi que de l’anglais (SCFA) (1958) was the initial classification of translation methods that a new clear methodological purpose. The definition of they used was ‘procedes techniques entre ma traduction. ’ They defined seven fundamental procedures operating on three levels of design: lexis, division (morphology and syntax) and message. The procedures had been classified since direct (or literal) or perhaps oblique, to coincide with the distinction between direct (or literal) and oblique translation. Literal translation occurs the moment there is a definite structural, lexical, even morphological equivalence between two 'languages'. According to the experts, this is only conceivable when the two languages are extremely close to each other. The textual translation procedures are: • • • Borrowing. Anything taken directly from another terminology, e. g., the The english language word bulldozer has been incorporated directly into additional languages. Rien. A foreign phrase or phrase translated and incorporated in another terminology, e. g., fin sobre semaine in the English weekend. Literal translation. Word for word translation, e. g., The tattoo is on the table and L’encre est au sein de table. Oblique translation happens when word for word translation is usually impossible. The oblique translation procedures will be: • • 01. Destinazione 47/4. Spiel 1 Transposition. A shift of term class, my spouse and i. e., action-word for noun, noun pertaining to preposition e. g., Expediteur and By. When there exists a shift between two signifiers, it is called crossed transposition, e. g., He limped across the street and Il a traverse la rue en boitant. Modulation. A change in perspective. Whereas transposition is a switch between grammatical categories, modulation is a shift in intellectual categories. Vinay and Darbelnet 499 11/21/02, 2: 12-15 PM 500 Meta, XLVII, 4, 2002 • • postulate eleven types of modulation: subjective for tangible, cause for result, means for end result, a part for the entire, geographical transform, etc ., at the. g., the geographical modulation between encre de Demarchage and Indian ink. Intravaia and Scavee (1979) studied this procedure in depth and come to the conclusion it is qualitatively not the same as the others and that the others may be included within just it. Equivalence. This makes up the same circumstance using a very different phrase, at the. g., the translation of proverbs or idiomatic movement like, Comme un roquet dans este jeu de quilles and Like a half truths in a cina shop. Variation. A move in cultural environment, i actually. e., to express the meaning using a several situation, e. g. biking for french, cricket intended for the British and snowboarding for the Americans. These seven fundamental procedures are complemented by other methods. Except for the procedures of compensation and inversion, they are all categorized as rival pairs. • • • • • • • 01. Destinazione 47/4. Spiel 1 Payment. An item of information, or a stylistic effect from the ST that cannot be reproduced in the same place in the TT is definitely introduced anywhere else in the TT, e. g., the French translation of I used to be seeking thee, Flathead. through the Jungle Publication Kipling employed the gothic thee, rather than you, to express respect, but none from the equivalent France pronoun forms (tu, te, toi) come with an archaic equal, so the translator expressed the same feeling by using the vocative, O, in another part of the sentence: Sobre verite, c’est bien toi que jou cherche, U Tete-Plate. Focus vs . Dissolution. Concentration communicates a signified from the SL with fewer signifiers inside the TL. Grave expresses a signified through the SL with more signifiers inside the TL, e. g., archery is a grave of the The french language tir a l’arc. Hyperbole vs . Overall economy. These methods are similar to focus and grave. Amplification takes place when the TL uses more signifiers to cover syntactic or lexical gaps. According to Vinay and Darbelnet, dissolution is one of the questions of langue and version of losung, e. g., He discussed himself out of a task and Il a perdu sa probability pour avoir trop parle. The opposite treatment is economy, e. g., We’ll cost ourselves from the market and Nous eine pourrons as well as vendre dans le cas ou nous sommes trop exigeants. Reinforcement or Condensation. These are generally variations of amplification and economy which can be characteristic of French and English, elizabeth. g., The english language prepositions or conjunctions that really must be reinforced in French by a noun or a verb: To the station and Entree de la gare; Shall I phone for a cab? and Voulez-vous que jou telephone pour faire acercarse une bagnole? Mallblanc (1968) changed Vinay and Darbelnet’s reinforcement for over-characterization, as they found it absolutely was more appropriate for the attributes of French and A language like german. He pointed out that German prepositions, such as, in can be converted into The french language as dans le creux de, dans le marche de le attached to de, or perhaps, dans votre sein de. Explicitation versus Implicitation. Explicitation is to bring in information in the ST that is implicit through the context or perhaps the situation, at the. g., to make explicit the patient’s sex when converting his individual into French. Implicitation is to allow the condition to indicate data that is specific in the STREET, e. g., the meaning of sortez since go out or perhaps come out depend upon which situation. Generalization vs . Particularization. Generalization is always to translate a term to get a more basic one, whereas, particularization is the opposite, at the. g., the English translation of guichet, fenetre or devanture by window can be described as generalization. Cambio. This is to advance a word or possibly a phrase to another place in a sentence or possibly a paragraph so that it reads obviously in the target language, elizabeth. g., Pack separately … for easy inspection and Pour faciliter la besuch de la douane mettre an element …. 500 11/21/02, a couple of: 15 PM HOURS translation techniques revisited 501 Table you Vinay and Darbelnet’s translation procedures Borrowing Bulldozer (E)? Bulldozer (F) Calque Very b de semaine (F)? Vacance (E) Textual translation L’encre est sur la table (F)? The printer ink is available (E) Transposition Defense para fumer (F)? No cigarette smoking (E) Entered transposition He limped across the street (E)? Arianne a traverse la rue en boitant (F) Modulation Encre para Chien (F)? Indian Ink (E) Assent Comme un chien dans le marche de un tableau de quilles (F)? Like a bull within a china store (E) Version Cyclisme (F)? Cricket (E)? Baseball (U. S) Payment I was looking for thee, Flathead (E)? Sobre verite, c’est bien toi que jou cherche, Um Tete-Plate (F) Dissolution Tir a l’arc (F)? A bow and arrow (E) Attention Archery (E)? Tir a l’arc (F) Amplification This individual talked him self out of a job (E)? Il a perdu sa chance put avoir trop parle (F) Economy Nous ne pourrons plus vendre si nous-memes sommes trop exigeants (F)? We’ll cost ourselves out of the market (E) Reinforcement Shall I mobile phone for a pickup's cab? (E)? Voulez-vous que je telephone pour faire venir une fiacre? (F) Condensation Entree de la garde (F)? To the station (E) Explicitation His patient (E)? Kid patient as well as Son patiente (F) Implicitation Go out/ Come out (E)? Sortez (F) Generalization Guichet, fenetre, magasin (F)? Windows (E) Particularization Window (E)? Guichet, fenetre, devanture (F) Articularization. In all of the this enormous variety of conditions, … (E)? Et neanmoins, malgre la diversite des conditions, … (F) Juxtaposition Et toutefois, malgre la diversite dieses conditions, … (F)? In all of the this huge variety of circumstances, … (E) Grammaticalization A person in a blue suit (E)? Un homme vetu para blue (F) Lexicalization El homme vetu de green (F)? A man in a blue suit (E) Inversion Pack separately […] for hassle-free inspection (E)? Pour faciliter la besuch de la douane mettre an important part […] (F) 2 . installment payments on your The Scriptures translators From their study of biblical translation, Nida, Taber and Margot concentrate on questions related to cultural transfer. They will propose many categories being used 01. Meta 47/4. Partie you 501 11/21/02, 2: 12-15 PM 502 Meta, XLVII, 4, 2002 when not any equivalence is present in the goal language: modification techniques, essential distinction, explicative paraphrasing, redundancy and naturalization. 2 . 2 . 1 . Techniques of modification Nida (1964) proposes three types: upgrades, subtractions and alterations. They can be used: 1) to adjust the proper execution of the message to the features of the structure of the concentrate on language; 2) to produce semantically equivalent structures; 3) to build appropriate stylistic equivalences; 4) to produce an equivalent communicative effect. • • • Additions. Several of the SCFA methods are one of them category. Nida lists diverse circumstances which may oblige a translator for making an addition: to explain an elliptic expression, to avoid ambiguity inside the target dialect, to change a grammatical category (this corresponds to SCFA’s transposition), to boost implicit components (this corresponds to SCFA’s explicitation), to add fittings (this corresponds to SCFA’s articulation required simply by characteristics in the TL, and so forth ). Illustrations are as follows. When translating from Street Paul’s Epistles, it is appropriate to add the verb write in several locations, even though it is usually not in the source textual content; a literal translation of they simply tell him of her (Mark I actually: 30) in Mazatec would have to be amplified to the people right now there told Christ about the girl, otherwise, while this terminology makes simply no distinctions of number and gender of pronominal affixes it could possess thirty-six different interpretations; He went about Jerusalem. There he trained the people a lot of languages require the equivalent of He went up to Jerusalem. Having arrived generally there, he educated the people. Subtractions. Nida prospect lists four conditions where the translator should use this procedure, in addition to if it is required by the TL: needless repetition, specific references, conjunctions and adverbs. For example , the name of God shows up thirty-two moments in the thirty-one verses of Genesis. Nida suggests applying pronouns or omitting Our god. Alterations. These changes need to be made due to incompatibilities between the two languages. There are 3 main types. 1) Alterations due to challenges caused by transliteration when a new word is definitely introduced from your source terminology, e. g., the transliteration of Messiah in the Monticulo language, means death’s palm, so it was altered to Mezaya. 2) Changes because of structural dissimilarities between the two languages, at the. g., within word buy, grammatical types, etc . (similar to SCFA’s transposition). 3) Changes as a result of semantic lazy people, especially with idiomatic expressions. Among the suggestions to fix this kind of is actually the use of a detailed equivalent my spouse and i. e., a satisfactory equivalent to get objects, incidents or features that do not have a standard term in the TL. It is utilized for objects which have been unknown in the target tradition (e. g., in Cyber the house in which the law was read to get Synagogue) and then for actions which often not have a lexical equal (e. g., in Internet desire what another gentleman has pertaining to covetousness, and so forth ) Nida includes footnotes as another realignment technique and points out that they have two primary functions: 1) To correct linguistic and social differences, at the. g., to clarify contradictory persuits, to identify unidentified geographical or physical items, to provide equivalents to get weights and measures, to explain word perform, to add information regarding proper brands, etc .; 2) To add more information about the historical and cultural framework of the text message in question. 01. Meta 47/4. Partie you 502 11/21/02, 2: 15 PM translation techniques revisited 503 installment payments on your 2 . installment payments on your The essential variations Margot (1979) presents 3 criteria accustomed to justify cultural adaptation. He refers to them as the fundamental differences. 1) 2) 3) Items that happen to be unknown by target lifestyle. He implies adding a classifier next to the term (as Nida does), elizabeth. g., the city of Jerusalem or, through a cultural equivalent (similar for the SCFA method of adaptation), e. g., in Jesus’ parable (Matthew 7: 16) to change vineyard / thorn bushes and figs / thistles intended for other crops that are more common in the focus on culture. Yet , he alerts the reader this procedure is not always feasible. Taber sumado a Nida (1974) list five factors which may have to be taken into account when it is employed: a) the symbolic and theological importance of the item showcased, b) its fequency of usage in the Bible, c) it is semantic marriage with other words, d) commonalities of function and kind between the two items, e) the reader’s emotional response. The historical framework. Right here Margot proposes a linguistic rather than a cultural translation, on the grounds that historical incidents cannot be customized. Adaptation towards the specific situation of the potential audience. Margot maintains that the translator’s task is usually to translate and that it is approximately preachers, commentarists and Bible study organizations to modify the biblical text towards the specific condition of the audience. He involves footnotes because an aid to cultural version. 2 . 2 . 3. The explicative paraphrase Nida, Taber and Margot coincide in distinguishing among legitimate and illegitimate paraphrasing. The legitimate paraphrase is actually a lexical change that makes the TT longer than the ST but would not change the that means (similar towards the SCFA exorbitance / knell. The bogus paraphrase makes ST things explicit inside the TT. Nida, Taber and Margot concur this is not the translator’s work as it may introduce subjectivity. installment payments on your 2 . 5. The concept of redundancy According to Margot (1979), redundancy tries to achieve symmetry between STREET readers and TT viewers. This is done either by adding information (grammatical, syntactic and stylistic factors, etc . ) when distinctions between the two languages and cultures make a similar reception impossible pertaining to the TT readers, or perhaps by controlling information when ever ST components are unnecessary for the TT viewers, e. g., the Hebrew expression, addressing, said that is usually redundant in some other dialects. This procedure is extremely close to SCFA’s implicitation as well as explicitation. installment payments on your 2 . 5. The concept of naturalization This concept was introduced by simply Nida (1964) after making use of the term all-natural to define dynamic assent (the best natural equivalent to the source language message). Nida claims that naturalization may be achieved by considering: 1) the original source language and culture understood as a whole; 2) the social context of the message; 3) the target audience. This procedure is extremely close to SCFA’s adaptation. 01. Meta 47/4. Partie one particular 503 11/21/02, 2: 12-15 PM 504 Meta, XLVII, 4, 2002 Table installment payments on your The Holy book translators’ proposals Classifier The town of Jerusalem Alteration Messiah (E)? Mezaya (Loma) Ethnical equivalent grapes / thorn bushes and figs as well as thistles? different plants which can be more common inside the target traditions Equivalent information Synagogue? The home where the regulation was read (Maya) Footnotes 2 . three or more. Vazquez Ayora’s technical procedures Vazquez Ayora (1977) uses the term surgical technical methods, although he sometimes identifies them as the translation method. This individual combines the SCFA prescriptive approach together with the Bible translators, descriptive procedure and presents some new methods: • • Omission. This is certainly to omit redundancy and repetition that may be characteristic in the SL, at the. g., to translate The committee has failed to act simply by La junta no actuo, omitting the verb to get corrupted and avoiding over-translation: La comision antojo de representar. Desplacement and Inversion. Shift corresponds to SCFA’s inversion, where two factors change situation, e. g., The phone phoned and Sono el telefono. Table three or more Vazquez Ayora’s contribution Omission The panel has failed to behave (E)? La comision not any actuo (Sp) Inversion The phone rang (E)? Sono este telefono (Sp) 2 . some. Delisle’s contribution. Delisle (1993) introduces a lot of variations to the SCFA techniques and keeps the term process of Vinay and Darbelnet’s proposals. However , for some other types of his very own, he presents a different lingo, e. g., translation strategies, translation problems, operations inside the cognitive means of translating… This individual lists some categories because contrasting pairs. In his review of Vinay and Darbelnet, this individual proposes simplifying the SCFA dichotomies of reinforcement/condensation and amplification/economy and he reduces them to an individual pair, reinforcement/economy. Reinforcement is to use more words and phrases in the TT than the STREET to express the same idea. He distinguishes 3 types of reinforcement: 1) dissolution; 2) explicitation (these two correspond to their SCFA homonyms); and 3) periphrasis (this compares to SCFA’s amplification). Economy is by using fewer words in the TT than the STREET to express a similar idea. This individual distinguishes three types of economy: 1) concentration; 2) implicitation (these two correspond to their SCFA homonyms and they are in contrast to grave and explicitation); and laconisme (this compares to SCFA’s economic system and is as opposed to periphrasis). 01. Meta 47/4. Partie 1 504. 11/21/02, 2: 15 PM translation techniques revisited 505 The other classes Delisle features are: • • • Addition versus Omission. This individual defines these people as unjustified periphrasis and concision and considers these to be translation errors. Addition is to present unjustified stylistic elements and information which are not in the ST, omission may be the unjustifiable suppression of factors in the ST Paraphrase. This can be defined as excessive use of paraphrase that complicates the TT without stylistic or rhetorical justification. It is additionally classified as being a translation error. Delisle’s paraphrase and addition coincide with Margot’s bogus paraphrase. Bright creation. This is certainly an operation inside the cognitive means of translating in which a nonlexical equivalence is established that only works in context, e. g., In the world of literary works, ideas become cross-fertilized, the expertise of others may be usefully applied to mutual benefit is usually translated in French since, Dans la profession des lettres, le percussion des idees se revele fecond; elle devient likely de profiter de l’experience d’autrui. This concept is close to Nida’s adjustments caused by semantic incompatibilities and transliteration. Table 4 Delisle’s contributions Knell Reinforcement Explicitation Periphrasis (+) Addition (–) Paraphrase (–) Concentration Economy Implicitation Subside (+) Discursive creation Omission (–) Ideas become cross-fertilized (E)? Le choc dieses idees sony ericsson revele fecond (F) 2 . 5. Newmark’s procedures Newmark (1988) also uses the word procedures to classify the plans made by reasonable linguists through the Bible translators, and also some of his own. They are: • • • 01. Meta 47/4. Partie 1 Recognized translation. This is the the translation of any term that is already standard or generally accepted, although it may not be one of the most adequate, e. g., Gay-Lussac’s Volumengesetz dieser Gase and Law of mixing volumes. Practical equivalent. This is to use a broadly neutral phrase and to put in a specifying term, e. g., baccalaureat sama dengan French secondary school leaving exam; Sejm = Gloss parliament. It is extremely similar to Margot’s cultural equal, and in the SCFA terminology it would be a great adaptation (secondary school departing exam / parliament) with an explicitation (French/ Polish). Naturalization. Newmark’s definition can be not the same as Nida’s. For Nida, it comes coming from transfer (SCFA’s borrowing) and consists of changing a SL word to the phonetic and morphological best practice rules of the TL, e. g., the The german language word Performanz and the British performance. 505 11/21/02, two: 15 EVENING 506 Meta, XLVII, some, 2002. Translation label. This can be a eventual translation, usually of a fresh term, and a exacto translation could be acceptable, electronic. g., Erbschaftssprache or langue d’heritage from the English history language. Newmark includes the option of solving problems by combining two or more types of procedures (he known as these solutions doubles, triples or quadruples). Newmark as well adds synonymy as another category. Table five Newmark’s procedures Recognized translation Volumengesetz welcher Gase (G)? Law of combining volumes (E). Functional comparative Baccalaureat (F)? Baccalaureat, second school leaving exam (E) Naturalization Efficiency (E)? Performanz (G) Translation label Traditions language (E)? Langue d’heritage (F) 3. CRITICAL REVIEW OF TRANSLATION APPROACHES As we have found, there is no basic agreement concerning this instrument of analysis and there is misunderstandings about terms, concepts and classification. One of the most serious scandale are the pursuing. 3. 1 . Terminological dilemma and over-lapping terms Terminological diversity and the overlapping of terms help to make it difficult to use these terms and to become understood. Precisely the same concept is definitely expressed with different names plus the classifications fluctuate, covering place to place of concerns. In one category one term may over-lap another in a different approach to classification. The category itself is given different brands, for example , Delisle uses method, translation approach, etc . 3. 2 . The confusion among translation method and translation result This kind of confusion was established by Vinay y Darbelnet’s pioneer pitch, when they offered the procedures as a information of the ways open to the translator in the translation method. Nevertheless, the procedures, because they are presented in the SCFA tend not to refer to the procedure followed by the translator, but for the final effect. The distress has persisted and translation techniques have been confused with different translation categories: method and strategies. In a few of the plans there is a conceptual confusion between techniques and translation technique. Vinay con Darbelnet released the confusion by separating the techniques following the traditional methodological dichotomy between exacto and free translation. Because they worked with isolated units they did not separate categories that affect the entire text and categories that refer to little units. Furthermore, the subtitle of their book, Methode sobre traduction, brought on even more distress. In our view (see 4. 1 . ), a distinction should bemade between translation method, that may be part of the process, a global decision that affects the whole translation, and translation techniques that describe the result and influence smaller parts of the translation. 01. Coto 47/4. Partie 1 506 11/21/02, 2: 15 PM HOURS translation techniques revisited 507 The SCFA use of the definition of procedures made confusion wirh another category related to the process: translation strategies. Procedures are related to the distinction among declarative know-how (what you know) and procedural or perhaps operative know-how (know-how) (Anderson 1983). Types of procedures are an crucial part of procedural knowledge, they can be related to knowing how to do a thing, the ability to arrange actions to reach a specific aim (Pozo, Gonzalo and Contraventana 1993). Methods include the usage of simple tactics and expertise, as well as qualified use of tactics (Pozo sumado a Postigo 1993). Strategies is surely an essential element in problem solving. Therefore , in relation to fixing translation complications, we think a distinction must be made among techniques and strategies. Tactics describe the result obtained and is used to classify different types of translation solutions. Tactics are relevant to the mechanisms used by interpraters throughout the the entire translation method to find a answer to the problems they will find. The technical techniques (the term itself is usually ambiguous) impact the results and not the process, thus they should be distinguished from approaches. We offer they should be called translation tactics. 3. a few. The misunderstandings between problems related to terminology pairs and text pairs Vinay con Darbelnet’s unique proposal also led to a confusion among language problems and textual content problems. All their work was based on comparison linguistics and everything the examples used to illustrate their techniques were decontextualized. In addition , mainly because they provided a single translation for each linguistic item, the result was pairs of fixed equivalences. This kind of led to a confusion between comparative linguistic phenomena (and the classes needed to analyse their commonalities and differences) and tendency related to translation texts (that need additional categories). The utilization of translation methods following the SCFA approach is limited to the classification of dissimilarities between language systems, certainly not the fiel solutions required for translation. For instance , SCFA’s borrowing, transposition and inversion, or perhaps, Vazquez Ayora’s omission, should not be considered as translation techniques. They are really not a calcado option ready to accept the ubersetzungsprogramm, but an responsibility imposed by the characteristics with the language set. 4. A DEFINITION OF TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES The proposal is dependent on two property: 1) the need to distinguish between technique, strategy and technique; 2) the need for an dynamic and functional notion of translation approaches. 4. 1 . The need to separate method, technique and technique We think that translation technique, strategies and techniques happen to be essentially distinct categories. (Hurtado 1996). some. 1 . 1 ) Translation approach and translation techniques. Translation method refers to the way a particular translation method is performed in terms of the translator’s aim, i. electronic., a global alternative that impacts the whole text. There are several translation methods which may be chosen, depending on aim of 01. Meta 47/4. Partie one particular 507 11/21/02, 2: 15 PM 508 Meta, XLVII, 4, 2002 the translation: interpretative-communicative (translation of the sense), literal (linguistic transcodification), free of charge (modification of semiotic and communicative categories) and philological (academic or perhaps critical translation) (see Hurtado Albir 99: 32). Each solution the translator chooses when translating a text responds for the global option that affects the whole text (the translation method) and depends on the aim of the translation. The translation method influences the way micro-units of the textual content are translated: the translation techniques. As a result, we should distinguish between the method selected by the translator, e. g., literal or adaptation, that affects the whole text, as well as the translation approaches, e. g., literal translation or adaptation, that have an effect on microunits in the text. Rationally, method and functions ought to function well in the text message. For example , in case the aim of a translation method is to produce a foreignising version, in that case borrowing will probably be one of the most frequently employed translation tactics. (Cf. This has been shown in Molina (1998), where the lady analyses three translations in Arabic of Garcia Marquez’s A Hundred Numerous years of Solitude. Every single translation experienced adopted a different sort of translation method, and the tactics were examined in relation to the process chosen). 5. 1 . 2 . Translation technique and translation techniques What ever method is selected, the translator may face problems inside the translation process, either because of a particularly difficult unit, or because there can be a gap inside the translator’s expertise or expertise. This is when translation strategies happen to be activated. Strategies are the techniques (conscious or unconscious, mental or nonverbal ) utilized by the ubersetzungsprogramm to solve conditions that emerge once carrying out the translation process with a particular objective at heart (Hurtado Albir 1996, 1999). Translators employ strategies for understanding (e. g., distinguish key and secondary ideas, build conceptual human relationships, search for information) and for reformulation (e. g., paraphrase, retranslate, say aloud, avoid words that are nearby the original). Because strategies perform an essential function in problem solver, they are a central area of the subcompetencies that comprise translation proficiency. Strategies wide open the way to finding a suitable remedy for a translation unit. The perfect solution will be provided by using a particular techniqu.

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