Computer-assisted translation Essay

Computer-assisted translation Essay

A literal translation is actually a translation that follows closely the form of the resource language. Often known as: | word-for-word translation| Exacto translation, or directed translation, is the making of textual content from one dialect to another “word-for-word” (Latin: “verbum pro verbo”) rather than conveying the sense of the unique. (This differentiation is valid only when a literal translation does not effectively convey the sense, which is not invariably the case. ) Exacto translation, or perhaps directed translation, is the manifestation of text message from one dialect to another “word-for-word” (Latin: “verbum pro verbo”) rather than conveying the sense of the unique. (This distinction is valid only when a literal translation does not effectively convey the sense, that is not invariably the case. ) In translation research, “literal translation” denotes specialized translation of scientific, specialized, technological or legal text messages. [1] In translation theory, another term for “literal translation” is “metaphrase”; as well as for phrasal (“sense”) translation — “paraphrase. ” When considered a bad practice of selling word simply by word (lexeme to lexeme, or morpheme to lexeme) translation of non-technical type literal translations has the that means of mistranslating idioms,[2] for instance , or in the context of translating an analytic terminology to a man-made language, they render even the grammar unintelligible. Term in translation studies Use The term “literal translation” often appeared inside the titles of 19th-century British translations of classical, Bible and other texts. Cribs Textual translations (“cribs, ” “ponies”, or “trots”) are sometimes ready for a copy writer who is translation a work created in a language he does not know. For instance , Robert Pinsky is reported to have employed a literal translation in preparing his translation of Dante’s Tormento (1994), as he does not understand Italian. [citation needed] In the same way, Richard Pevear worked by literal translations provided by his wife, Larissa Volokhonsky, within their translations of several Russian novels. [citation needed]. Poetry to prose Textual translation may also denote a translation that represents the actual meaning from the original textual content but does not attempt to present its style, beauty, or poetry. There exists, however , significant amounts of difference between a textual translation of the poetic work and a prose translation. A textual translation of poetry might be in the entire rather than sentirse, but become error free of charge. Charles Singleton’s translation in the Divine Humor (1975) is certainly a the entire translation. Like a bad practice “Literal” translation means that it is most likely full of problems, since the ubersetzungsprogramm has made simply no effort to convey, for example , correct idioms or shades of that means. Examples A literal English translation in the German word “Kindergarten” will be “children back garden, ” but also in English the word refers to the school year among pre-school and first quality. Literal goedkoop in which individual components inside words or compounds happen to be translated to create new lexical items in the target dialect (a method also known as “loan translation”) these are known as calques, at the. g., “beer garden” by German “Biergarten. ” Textual translation from the Italian word, “So che questo non va bene” (“I be aware that this is not good”), produces “Know(I) that this certainly not goes(it) well, ” that has English words and phrases and German grammar. Machine translation Early machine goedkoop (as of 1962[3] in least) were notorious for this type of translation as they merely employed a database of words and the translations. Later attempts applied common terms which led to better grammatical structure and capture of idioms but with many words and phrases left in the original dialect. For translation synthetic languages, a morphosyntactic analyzer and synthesizer is necessary. The best devices today make use of a combination of the above mentioned technologies and apply algorithms to correct the “natural” appear of the translation. In the end nevertheless, professional translation firms that employ machine translation utilize it as a instrument to create a tough translation that is then tweaked by a human, professional translator. Pidgins Often , first-generation immigrants make something of a literal translation in that they speak their particular parents’ native language. This results in a mixture of the two dialects in something of a pidgin. Many this sort of mixes possess specific names, e. g. Spanglish or perhaps Germish. For example , American children of A language like german immigrants will be heard applying “rockingstool” in the German phrase “Schaukelstuhl” rather than “rocking chair”. Mistranslations Literal translation of idioms is actually a source of numerous translators’ humor and apocrypha. The following popular example offers often been told at the context of newbie translators and that of machine translation: When the sentence “The spirit can be willing, however the flesh is usually weak” (???????,??????????????, an occult meaning to Indicate 14: 38) was translated into Russian and then back in English, the actual result was “The vodka excellent, but the beef is rotten” (?????,???????,?????,?????????????? ). This is generally believed to be simply an humorous story, and never a informative reference to a real machine translation error. [4] Rating Weighing scales for Narrative (open-ended or constructed) Questions Question: secretarial experience 76| Well QualifiedCandidate has considerable independent secretarial/clerical experience (may be more than approximately five years). Applicant has extensive experience coping with wide variety of intricate issues in accordance with challenges came across in the secretarial/clerical work environment. Candidate provides particular details with respect to the diversity of tasks/projects these people were involved in, and his/her tasks and obligations. Candidate’s response is detailed and complete and completely details the question. | 543| QualifiedCandidate has enough independent secretarial/clerical experience (may be around three to four years). Candidate provides experience coping with variety of intricate issues relative to challenges encountered in the secretarial/clerical work environment; however , his/her knowledge is quite a bit less thorough since that of the well-qualified candidate. Candidate delivers specific specifics in the same areas defined for the well-qualified applicant. Candidate’s response is complete and tackles the question. | 21| Limited QualificationCandidate features limited 3rd party secretarial/clerical encounter (may always be less than roughly three years). Candidate might have some encounter, but that experience is limited or perhaps presented vaguely. Candidate may well not provide certain details reacting to the query. Candidate’s response may not be crystal clear or full. Candidate’s knowledge is limited but not at the level required for this position. | Issue: social companies experience. 76| Well QualifiedCandidate has comprehensive experience offering professional level social services (may be more than around four years). Candidate provides experience coping with wide variety of issues relative to offering these companies. Candidate provides specific specifics with respect to the services they have presented, the diversity of tasks/projects completed, and his/her position and responsibility. Candidate’s response is detailed and complete and addresses all the above-outlined areas. | 543| QualifiedCandidate provides adequate encounter providing specialist level social services (may be approximately three to four years). Candidate features experience coping with variety of concerns relative to rendering these companies; however , his or her experience is not as complete as that of the well-qualified candidate. Candidate provides particular details in the same areas described intended for the well-qualified candidate. Candidate’s response is usually complete and addresses all of these areas. | 21| Limited QualificationCandidate is lacking in adequate encounter providing professional level interpersonal services (may be less than approximately three years), since required for it. Candidate might have some experience, but that have is limited or presented vaguely. Candidate may not provide particular details in answer to the discussed areas of problem. Candidate’s response may not be very clear or total. Candidate’s encounter is limited and never at the level required for it. | Problem: experience dealing with involuntarily determined individuals within a secured setting 76| Well QualifiedCandidate provides extensive encounter working with involuntarily committed persons in a secured setting (may be about two years). Candidate has experience dealing with a variety of jobs in this placing, including simple cleaning and maintenance. Candidate provides certain details according to duties performed, diversity of situations experienced, and his or her role in providing support. Candidate’s response is complete and complete and addresses each of the above-outlined areas. | 543| QualifiedCandidate features adequate experience working with involuntarily committed individuals in a anchored setting (may be around one year). Candidate has experience dealing with the most important jobs (e. g., perimeter patrol); however , his or her experience is not as detailed as those of the well-qualified candidate. Candidate provides certain details in the same areas described intended for the well-qualified candidate. Candidate’s response is definitely complete and adequately tackles the question. | 21| Limited QualificationCandidate does not have adequate knowledge working with involuntarily committed individuals in a guaranteed setting (may be lower than one year), as required for this position. Applicant may incorporate some experience, although that experience is limited or offered vaguely. Applicant may not provide specific details in response towards the scope of the question. Candidate’s response might not be clear or complete. Candidate’s experience is limited and not on the level required for this position. | Question: interview experience 76| Well QualifiedCandidate has comprehensive experience interviewing clients to gather information (may be more than approximately two years). Prospect has experience dealing with a wide variety of individuals in lots of situations and specifically recognizes the conversation medium (e. g., cell phone, in-person). Prospect provides specific details according to duties performed, purpose of interview, diversity of situations encountered, and his or her role. Candidate’s response is thorough and and details all of the above-outlined areas. | 543| QualifiedCandidate has sufficient experience meeting with clients to gather information (may be roughly one to two years). Candidate provides experience dealing with a variety of concerns relative to meeting with; however , his or her experience can be not as comprehensive as those of the well-qualified candidate. Candidate provides specific details in the same areas described pertaining to the well-qualified candidate. Candidate’s response can be complete and addresses many of these areas. | 21| Limited QualificationCandidate lacks adequate experience conducting interviews with clients (may be lower than approximately a single year), because required for this position. Candidate may well have some encounter, but that have is limited or presented vaguely. Candidate might not provide specific details reacting to the opportunity of the query. Candidate’s response may not be clear or complete. Candidate’s encounter is limited rather than at the level required for it. | Problem: customer service encounter 76| Well QualifiedCandidate provides extensive customer satisfaction experience (may be more than approximately three years). Candidate has experience dealing with a wide array of individuals in various situations (including communicating with difficult and/or aggressive customers/clients). Applicant provides certain details with regards to the duties performed, purpose of customer satisfaction, diversity of situations encountered, and his/her role in providing assistance. Candidate’s response is comprehensive and complete and addresses all of the above-outlined areas. | 543| QualifiedCandidate features adequate customer care experience (may be around one to two years). Candidate has experience dealing with a variety of problems relative to rendering customer service; however , his/her knowledge is less thorough while that of the well-qualified candidate. Candidate delivers specific particulars in the same areas referred to for the well-qualified candidate. Candidate’s response is total and address all of these areas. | 21| Limited QualificationCandidate lacks satisfactory experience rendering customer service (may be less than approximately one year), since required for this position. Candidate may possibly have some experience, but that experience is limited or perhaps presented vaguely. Candidate might not provide certain details in response to the range of the problem. Candidate’s response may not be very clear or finish. Candidate’s knowledge is limited and never at the level required for it. | Semantic differential level http://edutechwiki. unige. ch/en/Semantic_differential_scale#Examples Attitude scale for a web site (S. Kim MacGregor and Yiping Lou) * boring-interesting * meaningless-meaningful 2. important-unimportant, 2. informative-uninformative 5. disorganized-organized 5. easy-difficult Websites From UPA’s web protection and style, retrieved Apr 11, 2011. The XXX association in whose web site appears to be this is: Unfriendly__1__2__3__4__5__6__7Friendly Amateurish__1__2__3__4__5__6__7Professional Ineffective__1__2__3__4__5__6__7Effective Dull__1__2__3__4__5__6__7Interesting Outdated__1__2__3__4__5__6__7Up-to-date Serious __1__2__3__4__5__6__7 Fun Weak__1__2__3__4__5__6__7Strong This image design is: Cluttered__1__2__3__4__5__6__7Simple Unbalanced__1__2__3__4__5__6__7Balanced Unpleasant__1__2__3__4__5__6__7Pleasant Delicate__1__2__3__4__5__6__7Bold Confusing__1__2__3__4__5__6__7Clear Personal report NURSING EXPERTISE SELF-REPORT SCALE You should circle the answer that best describes you. * 1 ) I am an: RN Other 2. 2 . My job is usually: Staff registered nurse Assistant Nurse Manager Different * several. Length of time as graduating while an RN: Under six months 6 5. months to 3 years Much more than 3 years 2. 4. Amount of time working on a timeshare:: Under six months 6 months to * 3 years More than 3 years * 5. Previous encounter in nursing prior to graduation as an RN: Beneath * six months time 6 months to 3 years A lot more than 3 years Here i will discuss a list of statements about nursing jobs care. Please circle the number that best represents your agreement together with the statement. 1 . Strongly Acknowledge 2 . Acknowledge 3. Uncertain 4. Don't agree 5. Strongly Disagree 2. 1 . I actually often understand ahead of time that my individual will take a turn intended for the a whole lot worse. 1 5. 2 . We frequently bring on previous experiences when creating patient treatment decisions. two * several. Quality nursing care results from strictly sticking with policy and procedure. your five * 5. When I perform patient care, only a few items of information stick out as crucial. 2 2. 5. I actually am knowingly aware of the decision making in patient treatment. 1 5. 6. Psychological attachments get in the way of good nursing care. five * several. When something goes wrong with my affected person, I seem to know immediately what to do. 2 * eight. Sometimes I find it difficult to identify objective reasons for certain sufferer care decisions. 2 * 9. The ultimate way to give very good nursing care is to get near to the patient. 2 * twelve. I think it is time consuming to create priorities in patient treatment. 5 2. 11. I make my best decisions about affected person care once i remain aim. 4 2. 12. In an emergency, items happen therefore quickly i don’t know very well what to do. five * 13. I foundation my affected person care decisions more often around the rules that we learned in nursing college than on my experience in patient attention. 5 * 14. It appears obvious to my opinion what points need to be carried out first intended for my individuals. 2 * 15. I personally use facts such as lab principles and essential signs because my main source of details for making affected person care decisions. 5 * 16. I usually require a wide range of information about someone care circumstance before My spouse and i am more comfortable with making a decision. some * 18. I do my personal best medical care while i become really involved with the sufferer. 1 5. 18. My spouse and i am at ease with altering regular patient treatment procedures once i see the require. 3 5. 19. Sudden patient attention emergencies usually come as a full surprise in my experience. 5 * 20. Frequently I find myself depending upon gut feelings when it comes to affected person care. a few Source: Published with permission from G. Garland, Self-Report of Proficiency, Journal of Nursing Personnel Development, Vol. 12, Number 4, s. 197, 1996, Lippincott-Raven. http://www. research-paper-example. com/nursing-self-report-scale. html http://upload. wikimedia. org/wikipedia/commons/c/cc/Example_Likert_Scale. svg Applying the thurstone scale This can be a final form. The respondents check the particular statements which they agree. The average ratings by the all judges are displayed in parentheses. These probably would not be bundled with the actual type given to respondents. Note that the more positive assertions have a greater weight. This is a scale to evaluate your frame of mind toward marijuana. It does not cope with any other medication, so please consider that the items pertain to marijuana entirely. We want to recognize how students feel about this subject. In order to get honest answers, the questionnaires have to be filled out anonymously. Do not sign your name. You should check all of the statements with which you consent. | ___| 1 . | I don’t approve of a thing that puts you out of your normal way of thinking. (3. 0) | ___| 2 . | It has the place. (7. 1) | ___| a few. | It corrupts the (2. 2) | ___| 4. | Marijuana will some people a lot of good. (7. 9). | ___| a few. | Having never tried out marijuana, I can’t declare what results it would include. (6. 0) | ___| 6. | If weed is considered safely, it is effect can be quite enjoyable. (8. 9) | ___| 7. | I believe it is unpleasant and corrupting. (1. 6) | ___| 8. | It is usually the drug people start on before addiction. (4. 9) | ___| being unfaithful. | It truly is perfectly healthier and should always be legalized. (10. 0) | ___| 15. | Their use simply by an individual could possibly be the beginning of a sad situation. (4. 1) | http://psychology. ucdavis. edu/sommerb/sommerdemo/scaling/enrich/thurstone. html Iba ang Pinoy ni Princess O. Canlas Ang Pilipinas ay binubuo ng iba’t ibang lalawigan, at bawat lalawigan ay may kanya-kanyang bernakular. Ngunit iba-iba guy ang salita, iba-iba mang lugar ang kinalakihan, iisa lang ang ugat bist du pinagmulan. Tayo ay Pilipino. Mahirap malaman kung ang isang tao ay Pilipino nga u hindi social fear kasalukuyang panahon. Sapagkat ang iba social fear atin ay mas nananalantay ang dugong banyaga. For kung minsan pa’y mahirap ding alamin sa kanilang gamit bist du wika. Might maitim for mayroon namang maputi. May well matangos ang ilong for mayroon namang sarat. May matangkad in mayroon din namang pandak. Ngunit isang katangian ang nagbubuklod sa mga Pilipino upang sila’y makilala mo at masabing: “IBA ANG PINOY! ” Ang pagkakawanggawa ay may well taglay bist du iba’t ibang katangian. Sapagkat ang taong mapagkawanggawa ay masasabi engagement ring matulungin social fear kapwa, magalang, mabait, mapagbigay, mapagpaumanhin, mapagtimpi, o mapang-unawa. At ang pagkakawanggawang ito ang makikita sa mga Pilipino. Isang katangiang higit sa kayamanan. Mapapansin hanggang sa kasalukuyan na ang Pinoy ay may kusang loob bist du pagtulong social fear mga taong nasa kanyang paligid, kilala man niya ang mga ito o hindi. Social fear lansangan, ang mga batin ay tinutulungang makatawid nang matiwasay. Ang matatanda ay inaalalayan social fear kanilang paglalakad. Ang maraming dala-dalahan ay tinutulungan social fear pagbibitbit. Ang mga hindi sinasadyang mahulog na bagay ay pinupulot upang iabot. Ang mga upuan sa pampublikong sasakyan ay ipinagkakaloob ng mga kalalakihan sa matatanda u sa kababaihan. Pagbibigay ng pagkain sa mga nagugutom. Pagbabahagi social fear mga nangangailangan. Pagtanggap sa mga bisita nang may sigla, paghahain ng pagkain kahit kung minsan ay wala ng matira afin de sa kanila. At minsan nama’y pag-ako sa mga gawaing naiwan ng iba. At ang lahat ng mga ito ay ginawa ng kusang-loob at hindi napilitan lamang. Iyan ang Pinoy. Likas sa mga Pilipino ang pagkakawanggawa. In ang kalikasang ito ay dapat ingatan at pagyamanin pa. Nababatid ba natin na ang katangiang ito ay nakapagkukubli ng mga pagkukulang mhh ating nagawa sa mata ng Diyos? Sa iyong paggawa ng kabutihan, maaring may mga pagkakataon na ika’y hindi napasalamatan to nginitian gentleman lamang ng iyong tinulungan. At ang iyong ginawa akala mo’y walang saysay o walang kabuluhan. Ngunit may Isang higit social fear lahat ay nakakaalam. By Siya ang tanging makapagsusukli sa iyong kabutihan. Ang paggawa ng kabutihan sa kapwa ay may katumbas na gantimpala sa Panginoon. Ngunit hindi man natin makamit ang biyayang iyon dito sa lupa, makasisiguro tayong sa langit ay ipagkakaloob ng Diyos ang gantimpala. Tayo’y mga Pilipino, at nananalantay rin social fear ating ugat ang dugong Kristiyano. Ang pagkakawanggawa ay patuloy nating ihandog um ibahagi social fear ating kapwa. At hayaang ang ibang bansa ang magsabing, Pinoy ay dakila!

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