Translation and Technology Essay

Translation and Technology Essay

Contents Set of Figures, Dining tables and Containers Series Editors’ Preface Acknowledgements List of Short-hand Introduction you Definition of Conditions Machine translation Human-aided equipment translation Machine-aided human translation Human translation The localization industry Summary 2 Translation Studies and Translation Technology Translation theory Academic and professional organizations in translation Linguistic theories in equipment translation systems Translation studies The translation process Realization 3 Equipment. Translation Systems Major traditional developments Architectures Hybrid and interactive machine translation systems On the web machine translation systems Industrial machine translation systems Reasons behind using equipment translation devices Conclusion vii ix xii xiv xvi 1 six 8 10 13 16 19 20 22 22 26 31 36 43 55 57 58 sixty six 84 eighty five 87 fifth there�s 89 91 viii Contents. four Computer-Aided Translation Tools and Resources Workbenches Translation support tools and solutions Localization tools Commercial computer-aided translation tools Specifications for data interchange Summary 5 Assessing Translation Tools Equipment translation systems Computer-aided translating services Stakeholders Analysis methods Standard frameworks pertaining to evaluating translating tools Conclusion 6 Recent Developments and Future Directions Equipment translation systems Computer-aided translation tools Translation devices with presentation technology. Translation systems to get minority languages Translation on the net Machine translation systems as well as the semantic web The localization industry Summary 7 Translation Types Revisited Relationships among topics and translation types Machine translation systems Computer-aided translation tools Realization Appendices Recommendations Index 93 93 106 113 117 119 128 129 129 131 133 135 139 151 152 152 156 157 162 164 166 170 171 172 173 191 193 195 197 204 218 List of Figures, Tables and Boxes Figures 1 . you 1 . 2 1 . 3 1 . 4 1 . 5 2 . one particular 2 . 2 2 . 3 2 . 4 2 . 5 2 . 6 2 . 7 2 . 8 2 . being unfaithful 2 . twelve 2 . 14 2 . 12 2 . 13 3. 1 3. 2 3. several 3. 4 3. 5 3. six 3. 7 3. almost eight 3. on the lookout for. Classification of translation types Machine translation model Equipment translation system based on consumption Human-aided equipment translation version Machine-aided human translation model Chronology of translation theories Translation method model Sort of sentence representations Holmes’ schema of translation studies. A schema of applied translation research A model from the translation method including pre- and post-editing tasks Example of an English SL text and its particular pre-edited edition Unedited and post-edited The spanish language machine translation output Example of natural and controlled languages Example of unique English text message and its AECMA simplified British version Sort of natural The english language, simplified British and simple Arabic texts Example of a language controlled vocabulary text as well as translations Representation of the translation process utilizing a machine translation system. Chronology of machine translation creation Example of strength representations Equipment translation architectures Direct translation model Interlingua model Interlingua multilingual machine translation system model Transfer model Copy using tree-to-tree parsing Copy multilingual equipment translation system model ix 7 on the lookout for 10 12 13 twenty-three 29 23 37 40 43 forty-four 46 48 50 fifty-one 53 fifty four 58 68 68 70 72 72 74 75 76 x List of Statistics, Tables and Boxes three or more. 10 several. 11 three or more. 12 a few. 13 four. 1 4. 2 4. 3 5. 4 four. 5 some. 6 some. 7 4. 8 some. 9 4. 10 four. 11 some. 12 5. 13 4. 14 four. 15 some. 16 some. 17 some. 18 some. 19 some. 20 four. 21 four. 22 your five. 1 a few. 2 your five. 3 five. 4 a few. 5 6. 1 6th. 2 . Statistical-based model Probabilities workflow inside the statistical-based strategy Example-based model Translations by online machine translation devices Example of Web coding in a web page Example of the net page with no HTML code Example of a translation workflow utilizing a translation memory space system Example of an English resource text Pre-translation 1 Repository model in translation memory systems Reference model in translation recollection systems. Flowchart to demonstrate how to build a parallel ensemble Example of a text header in a a Example of part-of-speech tagging Example of a concordance for the word ‘round’ Types of tool used in a localization task Example of the translation process using a equipment translation program, a translation database and a terminology database Sort of TMX data-sharing Example of a header in TMX. Example of a body in TMX Sort of a header in TBX Example of a body in TBX Example of XLIFF in the localization procedure Example of a header in XLIFF Sort of a body system in XLIFF Example of another translation element in XLIFF Example of a glass-box evaluation Example of a black-box evaluation Example of an evaluation process Standardization tasks for assessing machine translation systems EAGLES general analysis framework Future-use model of translation technology. Speech technology in translation 80 80 seventy eight 87 99 99 102 102 ciento tres 103 104 109 one hundred ten 111 112 114 117 120 121 122 124 125 126 127 127 127 138 139 141 142 145 154 158 Tables 1 . 1 3. 1 An example of a desk for explaining translation types Example of anything entry in KAMI almost eight 67 List of Figures, Furniture and Bins xi several. 2 three or more. 3 a few. 4 some. 1 some. 2 5. 3 4. 4 four. 5 four. 6 5. 7 4. 8 7. 1 several. 2 six. 3 six. 4 six. 5 six. 6 six. 7 7. 8 several. 9 several. 10 six. 11 six. 12 several. 13 7. 14 six. 15 7. 16 several. 17 six. 18 7. 19 six. 20. Fake in the example-based approach Semantic similarity inside the example-based approach Classification of commercial machine translation systems Example of perfect coordinating Examples of unclear matching Bigger and decrease threshold proportions for fluffy matching Types of matching suggestions for ‘bow’ Example of segments Sort of translation devices Example of English-French translation models from a database. Classification of commercial computer-aided translation tools Level of automation Human intervention Bundled tools Using theory Application of theory in machine translation systems Source-language texts Target-language texts Periods of the translation process Types of text message Language dependency Types of source vocabulary Data interchange standards in translation Translation groups. and data interchange standards Numbers of evaluation Methods of evaluation Features in a machine translation system Language insurance coverage in machine translation systems Texts and computer-aided translation tools Language addiction in computer-aided translation tools Range of languages in computer-aided translating tools 82 82 88 95 96 ninety-seven 98 95 101 102 118 174 175 175 176 177 178 180 181 182 185 186 187 188 189 one hundred ninety 191 193 194 194 195 Boxes 1 . 1 5. one particular A translator at work FEMTI evaluation structure 14 147 Series Editors’ Preface Modern times have experienced momentous changes in the study of Modern Languages, worldwide as well as country wide. On the one hand, the rapid regarding English being a universal lingua franca provides rendered the command of other 'languages' a fewer compelling product. On the other hand, the necessity for intercultural mediators which include translators and interpreters is growing as a result of many recent interpersonal, political and economic advancements; these include legislative changes, the emergence of supranational organisations, the ease of travel and leisure, telecommunications, business pressures increasing awareness of community needs, immigration and career mobility, and a heightened knowing of linguistic and human legal rights. Today, linguistically oriented students wishing to follow a career in which they are able to even more their desire for languages and cultures will be more keen to choose vocationally relevant programs in which translation and interpretation play a crucial part rather than traditional Modern day Language degrees. Thus the probabilities for professional work in translation and interpretation have been extended, particularly because of developments in technology, if as assisting the translation process or perhaps as a means of dissemination and broadening entry to communications in a range of media. The role of translation can be, for example , becoming more and more important in the context of modern media including television and cinema, if for documented or entertainment purposes. Plus the technological possibilities for offering interpreting providers, whether for the police officer within the beat in order to the business owner on a distinct continent, include extended the previously literally confined character of mediating the used word. In addition to these fresh vistas open up opportunities intended for the specialist linguist, they also point to growing areas of exploration in Translation and Interpreting Studies. Practice and theory are of mutual gain, especially in the case of a fairly young self-discipline such as Translation Studies. Because of this, the initially aim of this series, written mainly for the MA and advanced undergraduate student, is always to highlight contemporary issues and concerns to supply informed, in theory based, accounts of developments in translation and presentation. The second purpose is to offer ready gain access to for students considering the study and pursuit of Contemporary Languages to xii Series Editors’ Preamble xiii vocational issues which can be of relevance to the modern day world of translation and interpreting. The final aim is to give informed improvements to practising professionals about recent advancements in the field impacting on their discipline. Linguistic, Tradition and Translation Studies University of Surrey Guildford UK GUNILLA ANDERMAN MARGARET ROGERS Acknowledgements I am indebted to three people for their contributions. This book could have taken more hours to full if it was not for Chooi Tsien Yeo who researched background information to me. Words are not able to express my personal gratitude to Stephen Moore, in between translation deadlines, to get putting his experiences like a professional ubersetzungsprogramm into publishing. I i am extremely indebted to Paul Marriott for his comments and suggestions, particularly in helping to picture a new way to depict the multidimensional classification of translation types in Chapter several. I would like to acknowledge particularly the Duke College or university Libraries and Institute of Statistics and Decision Science at Fight it out University in providing me personally with the environment and analysis facilities in which most of this guide was drafted. Also my personal thanks to the Countrywide University of Singapore Libraries, George Edward Library on the University of Surrey, as well as the Department of Statistics and Actuarial Scientific research at the College or university of Waterloo for their help. I would love to admit the following creators, publishers and organizations for allowing the utilization of copyright materials in this book: John Hutchins, Harold Somers and Elsevier (Academic Press Ltd) pertaining to the classification of translation types in Chapter 1; Eugene Nida and the Linguistic Society of America intended for the translation process in Chapter a couple of; John Clever and Wise Communications, Incorporation. for the controlled and simplified British samples in Chapter 2; Francis Connection and Takefumi Yamazaki intended for the KAMI Malay–English book entry in Chapter 3; Paolo Dongilli and Johann Gamper for the building of any parallel ensemble in Section 4; Tony adamowicz Jewtushenko and Peter Reynolds of PALMERAL for XLIFF in Part 4; Enrique de Argaez at Internet World Statistics for the statistical figure on the Net population in Chapter six; Michael Carl, Reinhard Schaler, Andy Approach, Springer Science and Business Media, and Kluwer Academic Publishers for the type of the future make use of translation technology in Part 6. To Antonio Ribeiro, Tessadit Lagab, Margaret Rogers and Chooi Tsien Yeo, my many sincere thanks for translating via English into Portuguese, France, German and Chinese respectively. I am solely accountable for any translation errors that occurred. A unique thank you visits Elsie Shelter, Shaun Yeo, Angeliki Petrits, Mirko Plitt and Tobey maguire Seng Tan for responding to some of my queries. xiv Acknowledgements xv To Caroline, Elizabeth, Gillian and Lyndsay, i want to thank helping out with keying in corrections within the earlier breezes. Lastly, to my ‘sifu’ and good friend Peter Newmark, a big thank-you for all the translation discussions there were during each of our coffee–biscuit lessons years ago. Whether it had not been intended for the series editors, Gunilla Anderman and Margaret Rogers, this book probably would not have been created. I am forever happy to they are all for their reviews and comments. Thanks to Jill Lake of Palgrave Macmillan for her tolerance and understanding due to my personal ‘country-hopping’ by Southeast Asia to The united states during the writing of this publication. Waterloo, Canada CHIEW KIN QUAH Set of Abbreviations. ACRoTERMITE AECMA AIA ALPAC ALPS ALT-J/C ALT-J/E ALT-J/M AMTA ASCC HOSTING ARTICLES ATA BASIC BLEU BSO CAT CAT2 CESTA CFE CIA CICC CRATER CTE CULT DARPA DBMT DIPLOMAT DLT DTS EAGLES EAR EDIG Terminology of Telecommunications European Connection of Jetstream Industries Aeronautical Industries Affiliation of America Automatic Dialect Processing Prediction Committee Computerized Language Digesting System Computerized Language Ubersetzungsprogramm Japanese to Chinese Automatic Language. Translator Japanese to English Computerized Language Ubersetzungsprogramm Japanese to Malay Connection of Machine Translation inside the Americas Computerized Spelling Checker Checker Aeronautical and Protection American Translators Association English American Technological International, Business Bilingual Analysis Understudy Despacho voor Systeemontwikkeling Computer-Aided Translation Constructors, Atoms and Interpraters Campagne d’Evaluation de Systemes de Traduction Automatique Caterpillar Fundamental The english language Central Intelligence Agency Centre of Intercontinental Cooperation for Computerization Corpus Resources and Terminology Extraction Caterpillar. Specialized English Chinese language University Terminology Translator Security Advanced Research Projects Agency Dialogue-based Machine Translation Distributed Smart Processing of Language pertaining to Operational Machine Aided Translation Distributed Dialect Translation Descriptive Translation Research Expert Exhortatory Group on Language Architectural Standards Effective, Affordable Reusable Speech-to-Text Western Defence Industries Group xvi List of Abbreviations xvii. ELDA ELRA ENGSPAN ENIAC EURODICAUTUM EUROSPACE EUROTRA EVALDA EWG FAHQT/FAHQMT FEMTI GENETER GETA HAMT HICATS HT HTML CODE IAMT IATE INTERSECT ISI ISLE INTERNATIONALE ORGANISATION FUR STANDARDISIERUNG JEIDA JEITA JICST-E KAMI KANT KGB LDC MACK LMT LTC LTRAC MAHT MANTRA MARTIF Evaluations and Language methods Distribution Organization European Language Resources Association English Spanish Machine Translation System Digital Numerical Integrator and Laptop European. Terms Database Aerospace and Defence Sectors Association of Europe Western european Translation Infrastructure d’EVALuation a ELDA Evaluation Working Group Fully Programmed High Quality (Machine) Translation A Framework to get the Evaluation of Machine Translation in ISLE Generic Model pertaining to Terminology Groupe d’Etude pour la Version Automatique Human-Aided/Assisted Machine Translation Hitachi Pc Aided Translation System Man Translation HyperText Markup Dialect International Relationship of Machine Translation Inter-Agency Terminology Exchange International Test of The english language Contrastive. Text messages International Statistical Institute Intercontinental Standards intended for Language Executive International Business for Standardization Japan Electric Industry Advancement Association The japanese Electronics and Information Technology Relationship Japan Information Center of Science and Technology Kamus Melayu-Inggeris (Malay-English Dictionary) Knowledge-based Accurate Translation Komitet Gosudarstvennoi Bezopasnosti Linguistic Data Consortium Localisation Sector and Standards Association Logic-based Machine Translation Language Technology Centre Language Translation Solutions Automatic System Machine-Aided/Assisted Individual Translation Equipment Assisted Translation Machine Readable Terminology Interchange Format xviii List of Short-hand. MASTOR MAT METAL METU MLIR MT NAATI NIST OASIS OCP OCR OLIF OS OSCAR PaTrans PAHO PDA CONTRAPESO RDF RFC SALT SGML SPANAM SUSY SYSTRAN TAP TAUM TBX TEMAA TGT-1 THETOS TMF TMX FEE TONGUES TS TTS Multi-lingual Automatic Speech-to-Speech Translator Machine-Aided/Assisted Translation Mechanised Translation and Analysis of Language Middle East Technological University MultiLingual Information Collection Machine. Translation National Certification Authority to get Translators and Interpreters Ltd. National Institute of Criteria and Technology Organization intended for the Improvement of Methodized Information Criteria Oxford Cha?ne Programme Optic Character Acknowledgement Open Lexicon Interchange Formatting Operating System Available Standards to get Container/Content Permitting Re-use Patent Translation Pan-American Health Organization Personal Digital Assistant Portuguese-English Phrase Alignment Source Description Platform Request for Responses Standards-based Entry to Lexicographical & Terminological Multilingual Resources Normal Generalised Markup. Language Spanish American Machine Translation Program Saarbrucker UbersetzungsSYstem System Translation Think-Aloud Protocols Traduction programme a l’Universite de Montreal TermBase eXchange Testbed Analyze of Analysis Methodologies: Writing Aids Text-into-Gesture Translator Textual content into Indication Language Programmed Translator to get Polish Terminological Markup Construction Translation Memory eXchange Thai On-Line Catalogue Act II Audio Words Translation Guideline Systems Translation Studies Assumptive Translation Studies List of Abbreviations xix WebDIPLOMAT WebOnt WORLD WIDE WEB W3C XLIFF XLT XML Web Distributed Intelligent Processing of Language for Operational Machine Aided Translation Web Ontology The net WWW Consortium XML Positionnement Interchange File Format XML Representation of Lexicons and Terminologies Extensible or perhaps Extensive Markup Language This site intentionally remaining blank Intro For over half a century, the necessity for a variety of translations by different sets of end-users provides enabled various kinds of translation tools to get developed. This really is reflected inside the systems that will be discussed through this book, starting from machine translation systems, computer-aided translation tools and translation methods. The majority of literature and content on translation technology centering on the development of these types of systems and tools had been written from the point of view of research workers and programmers. More recent magazines written with translators in mind have centered on the use of particular tools. This book is intended because an introduction to translation technology for students of translation. It is also useful to specialist translators and the ones interested in being aware of about translation technology. A different sort of approach is usually taken in that descriptions of particular tools are not presented, and the advancement different equipment translation and computer-aided translating tools and their uses are mentioned. Programming details and statistical equations are not considered, other than in the discussion of the record approach to machine translation wherever minimal essential formulae happen to be included. Points are given to let readers to increase investigate specific approaches or perhaps issues that may interest all of them, using references cited throughout the book. Also, it is important to be aware that no particular approach or design can be deemed to become better than some other. Each and every one has their own strengths and weaknesses. Most of the time, readers will find that instances of systems and tools get but this does not suggest that these are the best; they are simply examples to illustrate the items made. 1 2 Translation and Technology While exploring this book, I discovered that the majority of journals from the literary works on translation technology happen to be about the introduction of machine translation systems, primarily involving trial and error systems produced or getting developed in a number of educational institutions and large business corporations throughout the world. The publication will show that numerous of these devices never obtained their commercial potential and remained since experimental tools, while some others served because tools to get other natural-language processing applications. By contrast, not much literature appears to be available on computeraided tools just like translation memory systems. Even as we shall see in this publication, most computer-aided translation tools will be developed by business companies and, as a result, progress reports upon these tools hardly ever published in the public domain. Furthermore, to cater to different requirements and needs, a tool such as a translation recollection system will come in many types from the most elementary to the most advanced. Insights into the use of they can be found in ubersetzungsprogramm magazines and occasionally also submitted to the World Wide Web (WWW). The analysis of translation tools falls to a field that is wellresearched. Once again we will see that most of the books focuses on the evaluation of machine translation systems. Furthermore, the extensive use of translating services and translation processes active in the localization industry tend to end up being discussed individually, giving the impression that they are not linked to translation. Both of these areas will be, however , immediately relevant to translation technology. Therefore they are also one of them book. Essentially, the book contains precisely what is felt should be included in so that it will provide an overview of translation technology. In order to keep the book at the given span, the issues have been properly selected with some described in greater detail than others. In some chapters, an abbreviated traditional background have been deemed important in order to provide a much better understanding of the topics reviewed, especially in the description of the development of machine translation systems and their evaluation. However , in all situations, references have been provided which in turn readers might want to pursue another time. Suggestions for even more reading are offered at the end of each chapter (Chapters 1 to 6). The first part discusses the definitions of terms mentioning the use of personal computers in translation activities. A number of the terms can be misleading to everyone who is unfamiliar with translating services. In some cases, similar translation tools get different labels depending on what they are used for; consist of cases, a tool may be differently classified depending on the perspective of people who have developed that application. Introduction several The aim in this chapter is therefore to clarify these terminological and related issues. An alternative perspective to the 4 basic translation types – fully computerized high-quality equipment translation, human-aided machine translation, machine-aided human translation, and human translation – first proposed by Hutchins and Somers (1992) is introduced to reflect current developments in translation technology. This will always be explored much more detail in the final part where the four translation types are examined in relation to subject areas described available. The second part discusses technology within the bigger framework of Translation Research as a self-control, focusing on the partnership between the architectural of translation technology, on the other hand, and Translation Studies including translation theory, on the other hand. The partnership between academic and specialist groups linked to translation is usually examined. This in turn leads to an analysis of the engagement of a particular approach in linguistic theories – generally known as ‘formalisms’ in natural-language processing – especially in the design of equipment translation devices. A different point of view on the translation process involving pre- and post-editing duties using a particular variety of dialect called ‘controlled language’ is usually presented. This translation method is described using the translation model suggested by Jakobson (1959/2000), a translation model that is different significantly in the one recommended by Nida (1969). The next chapter gives detailed explanations of different equipment translation program designs also called ‘architectures’. The development of machine translation over many decades, their capabilities plus the different types of equipment translation systems, past and present, are included. Equally experimental and commercial devices are mentioned, although the concentrate is around the experimental systems. Even though equipment translation continues to be well-documented elsewhere, a discussion can be deemed to get important for this guide. It is sensed that modern-day professional interpraters should be educated about machine translation systems because there is every reason to think, as we shall discover in Chapter six, that future trends in translation technology are going towards bundled systems in which at least one translation tool is combined with one more, as is previously the case in the integration of machine translation with translation memory. The fourth chapter identifies the architectures and uses of a lot of computer-aided translation tools, such as translation memory systems, as well as resources such as parallel corpora. Contrary to machine translation systems, that happen to be largely manufactured by universities, most computeraided translating services are manufactured by commercial businesses. Thus, 4 Translation and Technology information about such equipment is harder to obtain. This chapter will likely show that computer-aided translation tools are becoming more advanced and employing different operating systems, and so ‘standards for info interchange’ had been created. Three different standards are described. Currently available industrial translation tools are also discussed. Additionally , this chapter presents an overview of other commercially available equipment such as these used in the localization market. The 5th chapter splashes on the analysis of translation technology. The topic focuses on different groups of stakeholders from analysis sponsors to end-users. Also included in the dialogue are the several methods of evaluation: human, equipment, and a mix of human and machine while evaluator. The choice of method utilized depends on whom the analysis is for and its purpose. Additionally, it depends on if an entire tool or just some elements are evaluated. Also referred to in this section is the basic framework of evaluation made available from various analysis groups in the united states and Europe. The literature on evaluation concentrates on the evaluation of machine translation systems both during the developing stage or after the process of creation is completed. Fewer information is available on the evaluation of computeraided translation tools. Precisely what is available is found mainly in translation journals, magazines and newsletters. The sixth section presents a lot of recent improvements and shows the way in which translation technology is definitely heading, specifically regarding the future of machine translation systems which have been now combining speech technology features. The integration of speech technology and traditional machine translation systems allows translation not only between texts or between expands of speech, but likewise between text message and talk. This incorporation is demonstrating to be within many particular situations around the world especially in international relations and trade. This chapter likewise looks at studies in countries that are involved in the development of translating tools for fraction languages and discusses the problems encountered in developing equipment translation devices for languages that are much less well-known but not widely spoken. Another kind of technology named the ‘Semantic Web’ that has the potential to enhance the overall performance of selected machine translation systems is also described. Included in this chapter, too, are problems such as linguistic dominance and translation requirements on the WWW that are previously shaping areas of the translation industry. The book proves by offering an extended version with the four simple classifications of translation types as recommended by Hutchins and Somers (1992) and introduced in Chapter 1 ) It is concluded that the Introduction 5 one-dimensional linear continuum originally suggested is no longer capable to accurately reflect current innovations in translation technology. Translating tools today can be found in different types and types depending on the reasons for which they may be built. Some are multifunctional and some remain monofunctional. An alternative method must consequently be found to depict the complexities and multidimensional interactions between the several translation types and the issues discussed with this book. It is far from possible to put every single subject discussed right here into one picture or physique, and so, to acquire a better understanding of how the issues are relevant to one another, they can be divided into organizations. Topics or issues in each group have one common theme that links all of them together, and are also presented within a series of furniture. However , it is necessary to bear in mind that not all subject areas can be offered neatly and easily even this way. This obviously shows the complexity and multidimensionality of translation actions in the modern technical world. By the end of the book, several Sortie provide information on the many Internet sites for several different translating tools and translation support equipment such as monolingual, bilingual, trilingual and multilingual dictionaries, glossaries, thesauri and encyclopaedia. Only a selected people are not listed here, and as a result the data are not thorough. It is also crucial to note that a few Internet sites will not be permanent; during the time of the composing, every work has been designed to ensure that most sites happen to be accessible. one particular Definition of Conditions In translation technology, conditions commonly used to explain translation tools happen to be as follows: • • • • • • machine translation (MT); machine-aided/assisted human translation (MAHT); human-aided/assisted equipment translation (HAMT); computer-aided/assisted translation (CAT); machine-aided/assisted translation (MAT); fully automatic high-quality (machine) translation (FAHQT/FAHQMT). Distinctions among some of these conditions are not usually clear. For example , computer-aided translation (CAT) is often the term employed in Translation Studies (TS) and the localization market (see the 2nd part of this kind of chapter), while the software community which grows this type of application prefers to call it up ‘machine-aided translation’ (MAT). As the more familiar term amongst professional translators and in the field of Translation Research, ‘computer-aided translation’ is used throughout the book to represent both computer-aided translation and machine-aided translating tools, and the term ‘aided’ is chosen instead of ‘assisted’, as also in ‘human-aided equipment translation’ and ‘machine-aided man translation’. Determine 1 . one particular distinguishes several types of translation relating human and machine engagement in a classification along a linear procession introduced by simply Hutchins and Somers (1992: 148). This kind of classification, now more than a decade aged, will become harder to preserve as more tools become multifunctional, even as shall see in Chapters 3, 4 and six. Nevertheless, the notion in Number 1 . you remains valuable as a stage of guide for classifying translation regarding technology. 6 Definition of Conditions 7 MT CAT Machine Fully computerized high quality (machine) translation (FAHQT/ FAHQMT) Human-aided machine translation (HAMT) Machine-aided human translation (MAHT) Human being Human translation (HT) MT = machine translation; CAT = computer-aided translation Number 1 . you Source: Classification of translation types Hutchins and Somers (1992): 148. The initial goal of machine translation was to build a totally automatic top quality machine translation that would not require virtually any human intervention. At a 1952 conference, however , Bar-Hillel reported that building a completely automatic translation system was unrealistic and years later still remained convinced which a fully computerized high-quality machine translation system was essentially unattainable (Bar-Hillel 1960/2003: 45). Instead, what has appeared in its place can be machine translation, placed among FAHQT and HAMT for the continuum of Figure 1 . 1 . The main aim of machine translation remains to generate translation automatically, however it is no longer necessary that the output top quality is large, rather it is fit-for-purpose (see Chapters 2 and 3). As for human-aided machine translation and machine-aided human translation, the border between the two of these areas is especially unclear.

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