Virtue ethics Essay

Virtue ethics Essay

Today the Arms Purchase Commission started out public hearings into what appears to be the most important corruption scandal in the history of South Africa. Apply the Global Business Standards Codex and describe if and how the Defense Department employed these rules, what they would have done in a different way if the Questionnaire was applied GLOBAL BUSINESS STANDARDS QUESTIONNAIRE. • Fiduciary Principle (Diligence, Loyalty) • Property Rule (Protection, Theft) • Reliability Principle (Contracts Premises, Commitments) • Visibility Principle (Thruthfulness, Deception, Disclosure, Objectivity) • Dignity Theory (Respect intended for the Individual, Health and Safety, Level of privacy and Privacy, Use of Force, Associatiation & Expression, Learning & Creation, Employment Security) • Fairness Principle (Fair Dealing, Reasonable Treatment, Reasonable Competition, Good Process) • Citizenship Basic principle (Law & Regulation, Open public Goods, Co-operation with Regulators, Political Noninvolvement, Civic Contribution • Responsiveness Principle (Addressing Concerns, Open public Involvement). LEARNING OBJECTIVES (TOPIC 3) After completion of this topic, it will be easy to: 1 ) Describe the main ethical hypotheses and apply it to organization scenarios © iStockphoto. com/Dan Bachman ETHICAL THEORIES 3 periods in history of ethics Greek period (500 BC-AD 500) • The man who also performed his duties like a citizen sama dengan good gentleman • Greeks – “Man is the measure of all things” – this individual decides for himself what is right and wrong • Socrates, Avenirse and Aristotle emphasised the necessity and significance of understanding the character of goodness • Stoics emphasised that goodness is definitely natural to man, regulations of values are the laws and regulations of characteristics – rational and thorough to human being reason. HONEST THEORIES Medieval period (AD 500 – ADVERTISEMENT 1500) • Attention was given to interior aspect of values due to spread of Christianity • Improved Greeks’ watch that ethics is a component to politics • The standard of right and wrong was according to God’s legislation in the Holy bible and was against any doubts ETHICAL THEORIES Contemporary period (AD 1500 onwards) • Individualism more important that priests’ preaching and cathedral principles • Human independence and individual accomplishments crucial than the Christian revelation • The difference between right and wrong was subjective, depending on the attitude of the individual making the moral judgement ETHICAL CONCEPTS & IDEAS. • Manufactured by moral philosophers over years to distinguish moral from unethical behaviour • Viewpoints that guidance can be acquired along the pathway to a decision • Every single theory focuses on different details in order to reach an ethically correct decision • Theories are directed towards achieving a common pair of goals (Ethical principles) MORAL CONCEPTS & THEORIES VALUES DEFINED The domain of ethics can be centrally concerned with human PERSONALITY (the sort of people all of us are) and CONDUCT (how we relate with others) 3 key queries comprise major of this domain name: 1 . installment payments on your What is good or bad for human beings? What comprises right or wrong conduct? 3. Just how ought all of us to live and treat others? ETHICS OF CONDUCTS CONSEQUENTIALISM The rightness/wrongness of an actions is determined by the consequences or perhaps results The ideal action is the structure: • Encourages the greatest pleasure of the very best number (maximizes social utility) = Utilitarianism • Makes results that maximise a person’s selfinterest = Moral Egoism CONSEQUENTIALISM UTILITARIANISM • Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) – Creator of Utilitarianism • Goodness sama dengan human wellbeing – what benefits great and what harms is evil • Two ideas of importance: • Pleasure and pain affects our lives • Pleasure makes life more content and soreness makes it worse • Power – net benefits. and usefulness made by an action • An action is right if the act is higher than the sum total of resources produced by any other act • Hedonistic Calculus – system to measure amount of pleasure and soreness that an action produces CONSEQUENTIALISMUTILITARIANISM 7 Standards – Queries Asked 1 ) Intensity – How intense/strong is the pleasure and psychological satisfaction? 2 . Duration – How long does the pleasure previous? 3. Assurance – Just how certain am I that enjoyment will happen? 4. Propinquity – How soon will the pleasure happen? How near is it? 5. Fecundity – How likely is it that this experience will cause more satisfaction in the future? six. Purity – Is there any kind of pain that accompanies this pleasure? 7. Extent – How many people will be affected? CONSEQUENTIALISMUTILITARIANISM. • Ruben Stuart Work (1806-1873) – qualitative separation of joys • Bentham treats all forms of joy as similar, whereas Mill argues that intellectual and moral joys (higher pleasures) are superior to more physical forms of pleasure (lower pleasures) • Mill’s argument is usually that the “simple pleasures” tend to become preferred by people who have zero experience with substantial art, and they are therefore not really in a proper position to guage. CONSEQUENTIALISM – ACT AND RULE UTILITARIANISM • Guideline Utilitarianism – an action is right if it conforms to a group of rules which will produce the very best balance of pleasure over pain • Work Utilitarianism – an action is correct if and later if it makes the greatest equilibrium of pleasure over pain for everybody CONSEQUENTIALISM – ETHICAL EGOISM • One’s self is, or needs to be, the determination and the objective of one’s own actions • Three categories: specific, personal, and universal? Someone ethical egoist would hold that all people should do whatever benefits them? A personal honest egoist would hold that she or he should work in his or perhaps her self-interest, but tends to make no says about what other people ought to do? A universal moral egoist might argue that everybody should take action in ways that are in their self-interest CONSEQUENTIALISM All is very well that ends well, in spite of means utilized to produce outcomes End justifies the means! NON-CONSEQUENTIALISM DEONTOLOGY • Focus on rules, work, rights • Actions will be right in the event they esteem rules and wrong in the event they violate them • Golden regulation – Carry out unto others as you may have them carry out unto you (human dignity, respect for people, obligation, duty) DEONTOLOGY. • Morality and ethics are to be understood as systems of rules supposed to govern and guide conduct • Deontological ethical theories are agent-relative as opposed to agent neutral – you have a duty • In the event that an action is of the wrong kind, it is not allowed, no matter how great its implications are • Rejects the two Utilitarianism and Ethical Egoism DEONTOLOGY – KANTIANISM • Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) – Ends, certainly not mere means: don’t handle rational real estate agents (others or yourself) while mere things to be utilized or exploited Categorical very important – everyone should be treated as a cost-free person corresponding to everyone else (unconditional) Everyone has a moral directly to such treatment and a correlative work to treat other folks in this way Mustn’t sacrifice the few even to gain the many • • • DEONTOLOGY – KANTIANISM. • Performing a task solely because it is our obligation is what Kant refers to as a great will – being good with no qualification Act only according to that saying by which you may at the same time will it that it should certainly become a universal law of nature – offers persistence • DEONTOLOGY – ORGANIC LAW AND HUMAN LEGAL RIGHTS • Another approach to Deontology and complementary to Kantianism • Natural rights:? Directly to freedom/ liberty – independence from coercive powerful rulers? Right to ownership and house – every person has a right to ownership over own body system and individual labour which is free to determine what will be achieved with what they owns, with out interference ALL-NATURAL LAW AND HUMAN LEGAL RIGHTS. • • Moral privileges –by virtue of being man Each right has a corresponding duty and these duties may be best or imperfect Rights perform an important part in business integrity – stakeholders have legal rights Many rights however enter into conflict in fact it is difficult to make a decision whose legal rights receives priority (victims or criminals) • • DEONTOLOGY – JUSTICE AND JUSTNESS • • • Reasonable and equitable distribution of opportunities and hardships to all or any Ask how fairly benefits and costs will be distributed to everyone in spite of power, situation, wealth, etc . Seven types:? Distributive Justice – focused on fair syndication of society’s benefits and burdens? Co-operation and competition – getting a proper reveal of some really good? Procedual proper rights – reasonable, decisive procedures, procedures and agreements between parties DEONTOLOGY – JUSTICE AND JUSTNESS.? Retributive Justice – simply imposition of punishment and penalties upon wrong-doers – does the abuse fit the crime? Compensatory justice – compensating people for deficits they have experienced when they were wronged by simply others – losses due to Apartheid? Further justice – laws themselves as devices of rights should be considered while just? Circulation – take into account who has experienced an unjust share in the costs of the policy while others who have illegally benefitted from a policy RAWLS’ PRINCIPLES OF JUSTICE • All interpersonal values – liberty and opportunities, income and riches, and the facets of self-respect – have to be distributed equally unless bumpy distribution of any, or perhaps all of these principles, is to everyone’s advantage. Two principles • • Simple freedoms – Freedom of speech, liberty and quest for happiness Big difference principle -There can be inequalities as long as this makes the most severe person better off DEONTOLOGY “The end doesn’t justify the means. ” ETHICS OF CHARACTER ARISTOTELIANISM – ADVANTAGE APPROACHES • Examines a person’s moral character and whether or not this kind of exhibits virtue • Aristotle – a moral virtue is a habit that enables person to exercise purpose in all activities • Actions of supplying people merchandise they exactly deserve is usually justice (virtue) or providing too little/ too much is injustice (vice) • Virtues are methods to and matters of delight • Virtue ethics makes being desired an essential element of leading a moral life SUMMARY MORAL THEORIES Functional Model.? The moment confronted with a great ethical situation: • Discover alternative courses of action • Determine equally benefits and harms of each alternative intervention for ALL stakeholders • Most benefits and least problems for the greatest number of people? The Utilitarian Model provides a strong capitalistic orientation and supports: • Profit maximisation • Self-interest • Satisfying hard work Weak spot: Focus • Competition in outcome alternatively? Focus of ethical behaviour is about: than procedure which might be • Organisational/ Open public Services goals unethical • Efficiency • Conflicts of interest ETHICAL HYPOTHESES Moral Rights Model? The moment confronted with a great ethical dilemma: • Determine if any kind of decision or behaviour violates the privileges of an person • If it does, it truly is wrong Weak point: Focus simply? Focus of moral behaviour is around: on person • Right to safety and never societal privileges • Right to know the fact • Directly to privacy • Right to not engage in behaviors that are contradictory to a person’s moral or religious values • Directly to freedom of speech? Supplies clear guidelines on meaning individual privileges ETHICAL IDEAS Justice Version? When confronted by an honest dilemma: • Identify if any decision or actions violates the rights of both people and organizations • If it does, it can be wrong? Focus of three concepts: • Distributive Justice Rule? Everyone needs to be treated a similar, unless they differ in manners which are reliant to the situation • Justness Principle? Commitments as a result of interactions • Normal Duty Theory? Accepting responsibility in exchange for sure rights Any kind of questions?

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