Ethics – Terms to know Essay
Worldview–The way the world is seen & made perception of; framework of specific understanding. elizabeth. g. Deism – The almighty abandoned creation Nihilism – Reality is without value; traditional values misguided Existentialism – Life does not have meaning but what we give that Eastern Pantheism – Polytheism, i. at the. Hinduism Naturalism – High-end humanism as well as modernism; God is irrelevant–nothing exists but natural world New Age Pantheism – Most is one particular; no differentiation between plants, people; all are God Judeo-Christianity – There exists only one The almighty who developed universe; The almighty is engaged w/ creation Post Modernism – Goodness is dead; truth is a social construct; relativism dominates Ethics–The explicit, philosophical representation on meaning beliefs and practices. (The difference between ethics and morality is comparable to the difference between musicology and music. Values is a mindful stepping back and reflecting upon morality, as musicology is known as a conscious reflection on music). Descriptive Ethics–Stating actual meaningful beliefs. Ordre Ethics–Study of what is really right or wrong. Metaethics–Study about discipline of Values. Metaethics Ideas Objectivism–There are correct and incorrect answers. Subjectivism–There are no correct or incorrect answers. Absolutism–All ethical rules carry without exception–there is only 1 truth; opposite of relativism, contrasts with consequentialism. Rights–Justified claims upon other(s) pertaining to actions or nonactions. Bad Obligation (Right)–An obligation to refrain from some thing or entitlements to do some thing without disturbance from other persons. See likewise autonomy. Confident Obligation (Right)–An obligation to accomplish / give, etc ., or entitlements that obligate others to do something positive to help you. In rem–Universal rights (obligations fall on all meaning agents). In personam–Restricted rights (obligations land on chosen individuals). Basic Obligations–moral requirements of all moral beings. Role-related Obligations–moral requirements of specific roles, at the. g. MARYLAND, priest, etc . Strong Paternalism–Forced acts of beneficence in person capable of decide. Weakened Paternalism–Forced serves of beneficence on person unable to decide. Negative Paternalism–Refraining from carrying out something to/for someone. 4 Main Ethical Principles as well as Values Nonmaleficence–Do no injury; (Primum no nocere – first, do no harm); a negative proper. Beneficence–Do great; promoting the welfare of others; actively avoiding harm; a good right. Autonomy–Non-interference with other’s choices and freedom to make choices as well as self willpower. Justice as well as Social Justice–Equal treatment for any. Ethical Devices Theories (*Related concepts) *Consequentialism–The end justifies the means; the rightness or wrongness of virtually any action will depend on its outcomes. *Utilitarianism (act)–To act within a beneficial way based totally on the great consequences for people; case-by-case analysis of each and every act. *Utilitarianism (rule)– To behave in a beneficial way (with good implications for the most people) based on meaning rules; categorical imperative? Deontologism–It’s not if you earn or reduce, it’s how you play the overall game; some activities are right or wrong regardless of their particular consequences; contrasts with consequentialism. Relativism–it most depends–all parts of view happen to be equally valid. Also: When in Ancient rome, do while the Romans do (cultural relativism). Splendor is in the eye of the container (personal relativism). *Doctrine of Double Effect–intention is everything; worries only planned means or perhaps ends, not actual means or ends even if predictable (i. at the. chemo side-F/Xs). Patient Marriage Models Anatomist Model–Just the reality, ma’am; healthcare professionals since scientists offering facts–patients make decisions based on these facts. Paternalistic Model–Do what I state; decisions are created by healthcare professionals. Contractual Model–Let’s produce a deal; health-related professionals give information–assist individuals in decision-making by making recommendations. Confidentiality–Not divulging information which in turn another offers revealed on condition of secrecy; patient’s right to privacy (of information). Deontological Argument to get the Obligation of Confidentiality–Respecting privacy respects individual autonomy. Consequentialistic Argument intended for the Obligation of Confidentiality–Respecting confidentiality protects and promotes wellbeing of patients. 3 Acknowledged Exceptions pertaining to Divulging the patient Confidence–Patient not really competent, required by law, protect public curiosity. Truth Showing (Veracity)–Obligation to tell the truth. Consequentialistic Case for Telling and Withholding the Truth–Do and what will most benefit/least harm individual; truth-telling as well as withholding truth context centered. 3 (actually 4) Feasible Exceptions for the Truth-Telling Rule–Family request, affected person request, pertaining to the good of others (less so now), keeping away from disastrous implications (extreme cases). 5 Portions of Informed Consent–Competence, information disclosure, understanding, voluntariness, and authorization.
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