Translation Theory Revision Essay
Translation – The process of translation between two different languages involves the translator changing an original text (the source text – ST) in the original verbal languages (the source languages – SL) in a different verbal language (the target language – TL) S. Bassnet def: Translation is rendering of a SL text into the TL so as to ensure that: 1) the surface meaning of the two will be approximately similar, and 2) the structures of the SL will e preserved as closely as possible but not so closely that the TL structures will be seriously distorted. Susan Basset: Telling the same things in a different language in a way that sounds natural, getting the point across. Translation types: Semiotic classification: Intralingual – an interpretation of verbal signs by means of other signs of the same language Interlingual – an interpretation of verbal signs by means of some other language Intersemiotic – an interpretation of verbal signs by means of signs of non-verbal sign systems. Binary classifications: Free translation – translator replaces a social, or cultural, reality in the source text with a corresponding reality in the target text Literal – rendering of text from one language to another “word-for-word”. Overt – is a TT that does not mean to be an original. The individual text function cannot be tha same for TT and ST since the cultures are different. Covert – ST is not linked to the ST culture or audience; both ST and TT address their respective receivers directly. Domestication vs foreigization: translation methods that move “the writer toward [the reader]”, i.e. , fluency, and those that move the “reader toward [the author] (domestication) “, i. e. , an extreme fidelity to the foreignness of the source text (foreignization). Documentary (preserve the original exoticizing setting) vs instrumental (adaptation of the setting to the target culture) Text Type Theory: Katharina Reiss. Determine, what kind of text you are dealing with: • Informative – plain facts (newspaper article) • Expressive – creative composition (poetry) • Operative – including behavioural responses (ads) • Multi/audio-medial (films or visual/oral ads). Equivalence: Dynamic equivalence (also known as functional equivalence) attempts to convey the thought expressed in a source text (if necessary, at the expense of literalness, original word order, the source text’s grammatical voice, etc. ), while formal equivalence attempts to render the text word-for-word (if necessary, at the expense of natural expression in the target language). J. C. Catford • A formal correspondent – any TL category which van be said to occupy the ‘same’ place in SL • A textual equivalent – any TL text or part of text that van be said to be the equivalent of the ST Descriptive Translation Studies (DTS) • A firmly empirical (kogemuslik) discipline • Describes and maps translations • Proposes hypotheses as why the translations are like they are • Avoids being prescriptive The aim of DTS is to acquire insight into the nature and function of translation as a cultural and historical phenomenon DTS leading figures: Gideon Toury, Andre Lefevere Early translation theory Cicero – senise-for-sense. Synthesized in Latin Greek philosophers. The founder of Western translation theory. The 1st to comment on the process of translation. Translation serves as the study and imitation of rhetorical models. Free translation that is focused on the meaning. Horace model – target orientation. Aesthetically pleasing and creative translation. Art of Poetry. Quintilian – remarks on translations are v much in the Ciceroian tradition. Makes a difference between: metaphrasis – replacing a single word with a single word; paraphrasis – replacing a phrase with a phrase. Jerome model – translation Bible –> latina „Vulgate“ (405. y). Translated sense-for-sense, rather that word-for-word. German Romanticism: individual author’s vision. Writer is a creator. Shlegel: almost all writings in act of translation: Schleiermacher: translator can take the reader along and produce him walk with the writer or inside the other method around.. Word-for-word translation onorthodox view of translation. • Herder, Goethe, Humbolt, the Shlegel friends, Shleiermacher • translations of Homeric epics, the Traditional tragedies and Shakespeare • Emergence from the German tradition as opposed to the The french language • target an independent literary culture Goethe: 3 stages of translation: 1) aquainted us russian in his individual terms (Luther Kings’s Bible) 2) French tradition – use of a unique criteria, personal rules. 3) The same idendity between supply and goal language. Eugene Nida. Formal equivalence – attention to the transfer of message, the two form and content Dynamic / practical equivalence – seeks the closest all-natural equivalence for the source language message Guidelines: 1 . producing sense installment payments on your conveying the spirit and manner of the original 3. creating a natural and straightforward form of phrase 4. creating a similar response • 1 . give a total transcript in the ideas from the original job. • installment payments on your reproduce the design and method of writing with the original. • 3. have all the ease of the initial composition. Nida’s equivalent impact criticized: • too concerned together with the word level • hard or unachievable • excessively theological Nida differentiates among: • Linguistic meaning. the meaningful romance between words, phrases and sentences. • Referential which means. “the words as signs which label objects, occasions, abstracts, relations” Methods: hierarchical structuring, componential analysis, semantic structure examination • Emotive meaning Toury? s tradition theory: Identifies social best practice rules. Preliminary usual: concerned with translation policy. The first norm: portrayed through detailed norms which direct actual decisions produced during the translation process. Corpus studies • Corpus – compurerized assortment of documents • A token – each expression as it takes place • A type – every single different word The type-token ratio can be described as text? h lexical density(tihedus) Postcolonialism: • Resist dominance, superiority • Focus on the impact and significance of translation in a context of political, army, economic and cultural electrical power differentials (vahe) • Is characterizied by simply hybridity (ristandumine) and self-reflection. English theory Early English language translation of the Bible: Ruben Wycliffe – published Bible’s English edition (late fourteenth c). Tried to translate the meaning, but preserve its kind. William Tyndale – 1525 Bible’s The german language version (Greek) The California king James Bible 1611 Bible’s English variation Early snel of the Holy bible in British • Wycliffe Bible 1380-1384 revised simply by John Purvey in 1408. Published Holy bible English type. Trying to convert the meaning but preserve it is form (w-for-w) • Bill Tyndale 1525 (w-for-w) • Bishop’s Scriptures 1568. • The King James Scriptures the Approved Version 1604 -1611 John Dryden in translation: 1) metaphrase – word-for-word; 2) paraphrase – sense-for-sense 3)imitation – total freedom. Tytler 18th c: 1) translation should provide source language complete framework. 2) style and manner should be identical. 3) reader should notice it as liquid as first text. Essays on the snel, self-standing thoughts on translations, creative activity sama dengan transl. Edward cullen Fitzgerald: Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam: Persian poetry, real attitude. quatrain rhyme system: AABA Early on theory and practice of translation in britain: draws on two traditions: • Classical Latin translation, through the Greek • Early Christian Latin translation from the Scriptures, the Hebrew, Aramaic California king Alfred (871-99) and his coverage of translation. • Augustine’s Soliloquies and Gregory’s Pastoral Care • Gregory’s Dialogues • Bede’s Ecclesiastical Great the English People Benedictine reform – a resurrection of monasticism,? lfric’s homilies – a purpose to educate the uneducated.
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