Environmental Science Study Guide Essay
Environment- everything about us. Which includes nonliving points (air, water, and energy) Environmental science- an interdisciplinary research of how human beings interact with the living and nonliving regions of their environment. Ecology- the biological technology that studies how microorganisms or living things interact with one another. Ecosystem- A set of organisms in a defined area or volume that connect to one another and with their environment of nonliving matter and energy. Normal capital- the natural resources and natural services that keep us and other types of life surviving and support our human economies. Resource- anything that we could obtain the environment to meet the needs and wants. Everlasting resource- is actually a continuous availability of solar energy. Renewable resource- a resource that usually takes anywhere from several days to several 100 years to be replenished through all-natural processes. Lasting yield- the highest rate from which we can use a renewable resource without lowering its available supply. Reuse- involves using a resource again and again in the same form. Recycling- involves collecting waste materials and processing all of them into fresh materials. Monetary growth- is usually an increase in a nationвЂ™s end result of goods and services. Gross domestic item (GDP) вЂ“ the gross annual market value of goods and services produced by all businesses, foreign and domestic, working within a nation. Economic development- an effort to use economic growth to improve living standards. More-developed countries- people that have high normal income and so they include the United States, Canada, The japanese, Australia, New Zealand, and many European countries. Less-developed countries- (opposite of well-developed countries) Pollution- any presence within the environment of a chemical substance or various other agent such as noise or perhaps heat by a level that is harmful to the health, survival, or perhaps activities of humans or perhaps other microorganisms. Point sources- single, identifiable sources. Former mate. Smokestack of your coal-burning electrical power or professional plant. Non-point sources- are dispersed and quite often difficult to identify. Ex. Pesticides or herbicides & a lot of trash. Pollution cleanup/output air pollution control- Entails cleaning up or perhaps diluting pollutants after we have produced them. Pollution prevention/pollution control- reduces or eliminates the production of pollutants. Environmental footprint- the amount of biologically effective land and water necessary to provide the persons in a particular country or area with an indefinite supply of renewable assets and to absorb and recycle for cash wastes. Affluence- consuming a lot of assets far further than basic demands. Per capita ecological footprint- the average environmental footprint of your individual in a given nation or place. Ecological tipping point- an irreversible move in the habit of a organic system. Dramatical growth- takes place when a quantity such as the human population increases at a fixed percentage per unit of time, just like 2% each year. Poverty- takes place when people cannot fulfill all their basic requires for food, water, shield, health, and education. Environmental worldview- the set of presumptions and values reflecting how you think the earth works and what your function in the world ought to be. Environmental ethics- are beliefs about what is correct and wrong with the way you treat the planet. Planetary supervision worldview- the view outside the window that we happen to be separate from and in fee of nature. Stewardship worldview- holds that we can and should manage the entire world for the benefit, although that we have an ethical responsibility to be patient managers or perhaps stewards from the earth. Environmentally sustainable society- one that satisfies the current and future basic resource needs of it is people within a just and future basic resource needs of their people within a just and equitable way. Natural income- living sustainability Social capital- making the shift to more sustainable societies and economies. Phase 2 Science- a human efforts to discover how the physical universe works by producing observations and measurements, and carrying out trials. Model- approximately representation or simulation of a system. Expert Review- consists of scientists openly publishing details of the methods and models that they used. Technological Law/law of nature- a well-tested and widely approved description of what we locate happening consistently in characteristics in the same way. Untrustworthy science- (opposite of clinical law and reliable science) Tentative/frontier science- some of the scientific results are validated and reliable, and some aren't. Matter- anything that has mass and occupies space. Nucleus- extremely tiny center of the atom, containing one or more protons/neurons. Atomic Number- equal to the number of protons inside the nucleus of its atom. Mass number- the total quantity or neutrons and protons in its nucleus. Isotopes- the forms of an element having the same atomic number but different mass numbers. Molecule- a variety of two or more atoms of the same or different elements held collectively by forces called chemical bounds. Ion- an atom or a group of atoms with one or more net positive or negative electric charges. Acidity- a substance characteristic that helps determine how a substance mixed in normal water will interact with and affect its environment. pH- applied as a way of measuring acidity Chemical substance formula- chemists use this to show the number of each kind of atom or ion in a compound. Organic compounds- contains by least two carbon atoms combined with atoms of one other element. Inorganic compounds- (opposite of organic compounds) Cardiovascular respiration- nutritious organic substances such as blood sugar combine with air to support co2, water, & energy. Anaerobic respiration- kind of cellular breathing in which a lot of decomposers find the energy they require through the break down of sugar in the lack of oxygen. Atmosphere- mass of air surrounding the earth. Autotrophs- (same since producer) Biogeochemical cycles- processes that recycle nutrients in several chemical varieties (include carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and hydrologic cycles) Biomass- organic subject produced by plant life & various other photosynthetic makes; total dry out weight of most organisms. Biosphere- zone from the earth wherever life is discovered. Biotic- living organisms. Carbon dioxide cycle- cyclic movement of carbon in various chemical forms from the environment to the organ. Chemosynthesis- process in which particular organisms get inorganic substances from their environment and convert them into organic chemical substances without sunlight. Community- foule of all types living and interacting within an area by a particular time. Consumers- affected person that simply cannot synthesize the organic nutrients it needs and gets it is organic nutrients by nourishing on the tissues of others. Decomposers- organisms that digest areas of dead microorganisms. Ecology- natural science that studies the relationships between living microorganisms and their environment. Ecosystem- one or more communities of numerous species getting together with one another and with chemical & physical factors making up the environment. Fermentation- (same while anaerobic respiration) Food chain- series of creatures in which each eats or decomposes the preceding a single. Food web- complex network of many inter-connected food restaurants and feeding relationships. Green house gases- gases in the earthвЂ™s lower atmosphere that trigger the green house effect. Major Primary Output (GPP) вЂ“ rate from which ecosystems makers capture and store a given amount of chemical strength as biomass in a provided length of time. Herbivores- plant ingesting organisms. Heterotrophs- (same as consumer) Hydrologic (water cycles) вЂ“ biogeochemical cycle that collects, purifies, and interferes with the earthвЂ™s fixed supply of water. Hydrosphere- earthвЂ™s liquefied water. В Natural greenhouse effect- natural effect that releases heat inside the atmosphere, nearby the earthвЂ™s area. Net Principal Productivity (NPP) вЂ“ level at which each of the plants in an ecosystem develop net valuable energy. Nitrogen cycle- cyclic movement of nitrogen in several chemical forms. Nutrient cycles- the blood flow of chemicals necessary for life. Omnivores- animal that can work with both grow and other animals as meals sources. Organisms- any kind of life. Photosynthesis- complex process that takes place in cells of green plants. Phosphorous cycle- cyclic movement of phosphorus in several chemical varieties. Population- band of individual creatures of the same types living in a particular area. Major consumers- affected person that nourishes on several or each of the parts of plant life. Producers- patient that uses solar energy/chemical energy to manufacture nutrition. Pyramid of one's flow- diagram representing the flow of one's through every single level in a food chain/web. Secondary consumers- organism that feeds simply on principal consumers. Stratosphere- 2nd coating of the atmosphere. Sulfur cycle- cyclic motion of sulfur in various chemical forms. Tertiary consumers- animals that feed on animal-eating pets or animals. Ex. shark, lion, bear. Trophic level- all creatures that are precisely the same number of energy transfers away from the original source of energy. Troposphere- Intimate layer of the atmosphere. Phase 4 Native to the island species- varieties found simply in one place likely to be wiped out. Extinction- full disappearance of your species. В Fossils- skeletons, bones, shells, areas of the body, leaves, seed products or opinions of this sort of items that give evidence of organisms. Foundation species- species that play a major role in shaping a residential area. Generalist species- species with abroad environmental niche. (Can live/adapt in lots of places) ex lover: humans Geographic isolation- separating of masse of a varieties into different areas for a long time. Indicator species- species whose decline serves as early safety measures that community is being biodegraded. Keystone species- (foundation species) Mass extinction- widespread, global extinction over the short period of your time. Mutations- unique change in GENETICS molecules which could alter behavior/anatomy in offspring. Native species- species that live or flourish in a particular ecosystem. Normal selection- procedure in which a particular set of genetics is produced in succeeding ages more than other genes. Niche- total life style or part of a species in an ecosystem. non-native species- species that into move into a great ecosystem and/or deliberately/accidently released into a great ecosystem. Reproductive system Isolation- permanent geographic parting of members of a particular sexually reproducing species. Consultant species-species using a narrow environmental niche. Part 5 Age group structure- percentage of the human population of each grow older level within a population. Having Capacity- maximum population of the particular varieties that a presented habit support over a presented period. Coevolution- evolution by which two or more species interact and exert selective pressure on each other that can lead every single species to endure adaptations. Commensalism- an connection between organisms of different species in which one type of organism rewards and the other type is usually neither helped nor damaged to any degree. Environmental resistance- all of the restricting factors that act collectively to limit the growth from the population. Inertia- the ability of any living system to be restored through extra succession after having a more serious disruption. Interspecific competition- attempts simply by members of two or more species to use precisely the same limited resources in an ecosystem. Limiting factor- single component that restrictions the growth abundance or syndication of the population of a species in an environment. Mutualism- type of species interaction in which both equally participating types generally benefit. Parasitism- discussion between species in which 1 organism preys on one more organism. Persistence- (same because inertia) Population-group of individualвЂ™s organisms of the same species living in a particular place. Population crush- dieback of any population surpass carrying capability. Population density- # of organisms in a particular masse found in a specified area/volume. Predation- when an organism feeds on another. Predator- prey romantic relationship: relationship predator VS . Victim. Primary environmental succession- environmental succession within an area with no soil or perhaps bottom sediments. Range of tolerance- range of substance & physical conditions that must be maintained. Resilience- the ability of the living system to be restored through second succession after having a severe hindrance. Resource partitioning- process of snorkeling up resources. Secondary environmental succession- succession in which normal vegetation has been removed or perhaps destroyed nevertheless the soil hasnвЂ™t. Chapter 6 Cultural transporting capacity- the utmost number of people who have could are in reasonable flexibility and comfort. Crude delivery rate- the quantity of live births per one particular, 000 people in a human population in a offered year. Crude Death rate- the number of deaths per 1, 000 people in a population in given year. Virility rate- the amount of children created to a woman during her lifetime. Replacement-level fertility rare- is the typical number of children that lovers in a inhabitants must endure to replace themselves. Total virility rate- the average number of children born to women within a population throughout their reproductive years. Life expectancy- the average number of years a newborn baby can be expected to live. Infant fatality rate- the number of babies from every 1, 1000 born who die prior to their 1st birthday. Demographic transition- when ever countries become industrialized and economically designed, death prices and beginning rates fall. Family planning- provides educational and medical services that help lovers chose how many children to have so when to have these people.
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