Greenhouse Effect & Global Warming Essay
The average global temperature has risen about 0.50C in the last century, and scientists expect another increase of 1 to 40C in the next 100 years due to increasing pollution in our atmosphere. Greenhouse Effect: * Greenhouse gases allow the passage of incoming solar short-wavelength radiation but absorb some of the reflected infrared radiation and reradiate it back to the Earth’s surface. * Energy is then reradiated in the lower atmosphere causing an increase in temperature and climatic change. Hence, contributing to global warming. http://www.wwnorton.com/college/chemistry/gilbert2/contents/ch09/studyplan.asp Greenhouse Gases: 1. Water (H2O) 2. Carbon dioxide (CO2) 3. Methane (CH4) 4. Nitrous oxide (N2O) 5. CFCs 6. Ozone (O3) Greenhouse Gas Sources: Greenhouse Gas Human Sources Natural Sources Water 1.Combustion of hydrocarbons 1.Evaporation of oceans and lakes Carbon dioxide Burning of- 1.Fossil fuels 2. Forest fires 3. Wood 4. Waste. 1.Respiration. 2.Decay of organic matter. 3.Natural forest fires Methane 1.Cattle farming 2.Rice paddies 3.Petroleum 4.Natural gas production Decay of organic matter- 1.Swamps 2.Marshes Nitrous oxide 1.Use of nitrogen based fertilizers. 2.Combustion of biomass. 1.Bacterial Action CFCs 1.Refrigerants 2.Propellants Ozone 1.Secondary pollutant in photochemical smog’s Greenhouse Gas Effects: Greenhouse gas effects depend on both their concentration (abundance) in the atmosphere and on their ability to absorb heat radiation. However, each molecule has its own type of bond, they each absorb at slightly different frequencies and wavelengths. Gas Heat trapping effectiveness compared with CO2 Overall contribution to increased global warming. Water 0.1 > 1% Carbon dioxide 1 50% Methane 30 18% Nitrous oxide a hundred and fifty 6% CFCs 2000 12% Ozone 15, 000 – 25, 000 14% 1 . Water= has got the most over-all contribution to global warming as it has a high concentration. 2 . Carbon dioxide= is the most important garden greenhouse gas since contributes 50 percent to around the world and provides second major concentration. a few. CFCs= will be thousands of times better in absorbing heat/ infrared radiation than CARBON DIOXIDE – Nevertheless they have a reduced concentration; consequently, their result is limited to 14%. Green house effect is determined by: * Concentration of substance * Life expectancy of chemical. * Ability to absorb infrared radiation * Intensity of absorption 5. Number of wavelengths absorbed depends on the molecules a genuine. ‘Atmospheric Window Region’ = is the place within the range through which rays can escape. Example: Methane and CFCs have the greenhouse aspect than LASER and WATER because they will absorb inside the ‘atmospheric windowpane region’. CFC fills this window. Methane is 30x more effective in the green house effect as it offers 4 C-H bonds, meaning it can absorb more in a certain consistency. Influence of Gases on Global Warming: 1 . Increase in temperatures by about zero. 5 degree. 2 . Embrace precipitation a few. Rise in marine levels- burning of glaciers/ ice caps/ thermal expansion of drinking water 4. Changes in crop brings 5. More serious droughts 6th. More floods and thunder storms 7. Changes in distribution of pathogens and insects (e. g. malaria). Influence of Particulates in Temperature: 1 ) Particulates= volcanic dust. installment payments on your It scatters and shows incoming sun rays (UV and visible) so less solar radiation may enter the ambiance. 3. It lowers atmospheric temperature as provides moisture build-up or condensation nuclei about which normal water particles condense to form atmosphere reducing solar power heating. four. Volcanic breakouts & forest fires- raises number of particles.
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